Articles: Growel trial in potato cultivation in Morocco Potato fertilisation — Potassium and Magnesium for high yield and good quality Introduction: I. Importance of potato cultivation in Morocco Potato cultivation dates back to Morocco since the French colonization period Anonymous,
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- Herb Seeds
- Residue trials to obtain permanent maximum residue limits for crops (Residues)
- Pest Management Regulatory Agency Annual Report 2015-2016
- THE CULTURE OF VEGETABLES AND FLOWERS FROM SEEDS AND ROOTS
- Section 2 Description and characteristics of the main food crops
- Breeding of Vegetable Tuber and Spice Crops
- Alphabetical NCCI Code List
Herb SeedsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Caribbean Root Vegetables
Articles: Growel trial in potato cultivation in Morocco Potato fertilisation — Potassium and Magnesium for high yield and good quality Introduction: I. Importance of potato cultivation in Morocco Potato cultivation dates back to Morocco since the French colonization period Anonymous, It currently ranks first among vegetables grown in the country Skiredj, Table 1.
Evolution of the potato surface in Morocco. Potato Production Areas The potato crop is distributed in all regions of Morocco: mountain areas, plains and coastal areas. The distribution of the production by zones of DPA and the surfaces is given in table 2. Early potato or primor IV. Semi early potato IV.
Late potato. Experimental Characteristics I. Experimental plot The trial was carried out in open field in two plots, with irrigation located in the area of Massa, located in the south of Agadir.
The type of soil is of sandy and with an area of two hectares. The cultural precedent was the cultivation of wheat in and watermelon in Factors studied II. Varietal factor The farmer Mr. According to Mr. Agronomic characteristics: varieties of high yield and uniform size; the tubers may be irregular in heavy soils under high humidity conditions.
Preparation of the soil Ploughed land with a deep work, to later draw the ridges to a meter of distance between them. Parameters of evaluation To better understand the response of the potato to the treatments, we monitor the plants during their development cycle. By choosing three plants at random one plant per treatment and by experimental unit, they randomly selected the observation areas. See diagram 1. The observations started after the first application and a thorough performance evaluation is performed 15 days before the date of harvest.
Yield and quality dictate the profitability of potato production and fertilisation plays a major role in determining these parameters. Therefore, it is vital that fertiliser programmes are optimised. Of all nutrients, it is potassium, which is absorbed by the potato crop in the greatest quantities. At the same time, potatoes are particularly susceptible to magnesium deficiency. Therefore it is essential to include magnesium in a balanced fertiliser programme.
Nutrient Demand of the Potato Crop Fertiliser is applied in order to maintain the fertility of the soil so that its natural yield potential can be protected over the long term. This requires the maintenance of an optimal nutrient content in the soil. Nutrients removed with the harvest have to be replaced through an adequate application of fertiliser.
Together with the replacement of removed nutrients adjustments have to be added for site specific losses for example: leaching or erosion. The total removal of a plant results from the nutrient uptake of the main crop tubers and the uptake of harvest residues leaves, stems and roots. If the harvest residues remain on the field, only the removed nutrients by the main crops have to be replaced. Different requirements on potato quality The desired quality of potato crops depends on the intended use table, processed, starch or seed potato.
For example, processed products such as crisps and chips require a medium starch content, while starch production requires a high starch content. The starch content is less important for cooking potatoes.
However here cooking quality of potatoes is very important. This means that potatoes should not disintegrate when cooked and should not discolour. To meet these diverse demands on the quality of potatoes, the selection of suitable varieties as well as adequate fertilisation are important.
Potassium is a major determinant of yield and quality. Potassium regulates the osmotic turgor of the cells and the water balance. Crops grown with adequate K availability use less water per unit weight of plant biomass and are therefore better able to survive periods of drought. Potassium is involved in the activation of the most important metabolic processes and thus has a major influence on tuber quality.
Several field trials demonstrated the effect of potassium fertilization on tuber dry matter content as well as starch content. The graph below shows a field trial result from Germany. Here, the effect of potassium SOP on yield and on the black spot incidence has been proven. Beside Potassium, Nitrogen also has an impact on reducing sugar content but it is reverse to K: the lower N content, the lower reducing sugar content in the tuber.
The graph below illustrate the relation between tuber K content and tuber reducing sugar content: the higher K content in tuber, the lower rate of reducing sugar. Reducing sugar content and colour of fried products are closely connected. This is part of the Maillard reaction while being fried. The higher the reducing sugar content, the browner the color of fried potatoes. Plant Nutr 30, Magnesium plays a primary role in photosynthesis, protein synthesis and in the activation of various enzymes.
In case of Magnesium deficiency growth is stunted and results in reduced yields and crop quality. A considerable area of potatoes is grown on light soils which are inherently low in magnesium and therefore require Mg fertilisation. On light soils, it is particularly advisable to apply Mg and K fertiliser in spring for agronomic and efficiency reasons. The table below shows the effect of fertilizers on various quality parameters of potato.
Potato fertilisation needs to be adjusted to the expected yield and to the intended end-use of the crop. In potatoes, the main part of potassium and magnesium are stored in the tubers. Vascular examinations show that of all the nutrients, magnesium has the greatest influence on an infection by Alternaria.
Deficiencies in other nutrients led to the respective deficiency symptoms but only a deficiency in magnesium caused further infections. Only a magnesium deficiency resulted in a huge population of Alternaria on the haulm as showed by the beside picture. Several field trials have also demonstrated that a balanced fertilisation in potato helps to strengthen crop resistance to many biotic stresses such as fungi. However, for soil application, granular form of SOP is more likely to be used by growers who can then manage nitrogen fertilisation independently of K supply.
NOP is more used for fertigation systems thanks to its highly soluble form. In the graph below the effect of different potassium fertilizers on yield and starch content is impressively shown. High pH soils are, in the main, low in magnesium availability and need additional magnesium fertilisation to meet potato crop requirements.
Magnesium sulphate, being completely water soluble irrespective of pH, is therefore ideal in high pH soils. The graph below illustrate the results obtained in United Kingdom with Patentkali compared to SOP at the same K2O dose: the additional Mg and S supply through Patentkali promotes higher yield and quality. Agricoat Natureseal Ltd. Natureseal is a line of products that keep cut produce fresh. All the products are allergen and sulfite-free.
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Twelve millennia ago, humankind moved into the Neolithic era and discovered that food, feed and fibre could be produced from the cultivation of plants. This discovery has led to the food and fibre supply that feeds and clothes more than 5 billion people today. This general profile of the agricultural industry includes its evolution and structure, economic importance of different crop commodities and characteristics of the industry and workforce. Agricultural workforce systems involve three types of major activities:. The agriculture system is shown as four major processes. These processes represent sequential phases in crop production.
Residue trials to obtain permanent maximum residue limits for crops (Residues)
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Pest Management Regulatory Agency Annual Report 2015-2016
PMRA continues to be committed to upholding high standards of health and environmental protection, and to meeting work performance expectations for its core pesticide regulatory activities. It is also important to keep pace with change, and PMRA relies on stakeholder feedback to assess our priorities against the needs and expectations of Canadians. In —, PMRA received significant input through a number of committees, consultations and audits. The Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development, under the authority of the Auditor General, conducted an audit of the pesticide regulatory program and published its report in January Many of the recommendations have already been addressed through measures such as eliminating the future use of conditional registrations, and publishing a multi-year re-evaluation work plan. Work is ongoing to address other audit recommendations.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Leaf-Bag Clamps For Root Crop Storage
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THE CULTURE OF VEGETABLES AND FLOWERS FROM SEEDS AND ROOTS
Centres of origin, plant bio-diversity and its conservation. Models of reproduction, pollination systems and genetics of important vegetable, tuber and spice crops. Self- incompatibility and male sterility, its classification and application in crop improvement. Principles of breeding self-pollinated crops, pure line selection, mass selection, heterosis breeding, hybridization, pedigree method, mass pedigree method, bulk method, modified bulk method, single seed descent method and back cross method.
This content is current only at the time of printing. This document was printed on 15 January Crop residue trials are required for estimating the maximum residue level likely to occur in a commodity or crop when a product is used according to good agricultural practice. Residues remaining on or in a crop commodity from a given method, timing and rate of pesticide application may vary with trial site and climate, and the limits of such variation are important to the establishment of maximum residue limits MRLs. Other interacting factors of varying importance include growth dilution, ratio of crop surface to mass, volatility of the product, and degree of absorption onto and into the surface of the treated commodity. All of these must be taken into account when designing residue trials that represent a range of agricultural and climatic conditions. The recommendations for use of the chemical included on the approved label must reflect good agricultural practice. MRLs are based on good agricultural practice and will never, under any circumstances, be higher than can be justified on toxicological grounds.
Section 2 Description and characteristics of the main food crops
Horticulture has a full share in the progressive character of the age. Changes have been effected in the Kitchen Garden which are quite as remarkable as the altered methods of locomotion, lighting and sanitation. Vegetables are grown in greater variety, of higher quality, and are sent to table both earlier and later in the season than was considered possible by gardeners of former generations. When Parkinson directed his readers to prepare Melons for eating by mixing with the pulp 'salt and pepper and good store of wine,' he must have been familiar with fruit differing widely from the superb varieties which are now in favour. A kindred plant, the Cucumber, is more prolific than ever, and the fruits win admiration for their symmetrical form. The Tomato has ceased to be a summer luxury for the few, and is now prized as a delicacy throughout the year by all classes of the community.
Breeding of Vegetable Tuber and Spice Crops
P erhaps the most characteristic feature of Northern and Eastern farms is the home vegetable garden. Even where no orchard has been planted, and where the ornamental surroundings of the home have been neglected, a fairly well-kept garden in which are grown a number of the staple kinds of vegetables is generally to be found. In many cases the principal interest in the garden is manifested by the women of the household and much of the necessary care is given by them. A small portion of the garden inclosure is generally devoted to the cultivation of flowers, and a number of medicinal plants is invariably present. Throughout the newer parts of the country it is seen that the conditions governing the maintenance and use of the vegetable garden are somewhat different, and, while a number of vegetable crops may be grown somewhere on the farm, there is wanting that distinction so characteristic of the typical New England kitchen garden.
Alphabetical NCCI Code List
Caribbean Fruits Depending on the island a fruit can have a different name, for example Mammy Apple St Vincent while other island s called it Mamisiporte which is a soft fruit the size of an avacado which has a faint smell and taste. Ackee Achee, Akee, Blighia Sapida A handful of islands grow ackee as an ornamental tree, but only Jamaica looks at it as a tree that bears edible fruit.. A bright red tropical fruit that, when ripe, bursts open to reveal three large black seeds attached individually to a soft, creamy yellow flesh. The tree grows about 9 metres 30 feet tall.
Check out our Papaya Seed Page for Papaya carica varieties from around the world. Note: These seeds need to be cold statified before sowing. We recommend using the Seedman's Cold Stratification Kits for cold stratification. The fruit look like short, fat bananas.
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