Food Industry. Both in meat and especially in fish there is a high risk of quality loss due to oxidation [ 1 , 2 ]. Lipid oxidation in meat and fish-products leads to rancid taste and off flavor and development of many different substances from which some have even adverse effects to human health e. Oxidation limits storage time and thereby also affects marketing and distribution of both fish and meat products.
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2020 Exhibitor ListVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Canning Fish in Jars
Sean T. Hammond, James H. Brown, Joseph R. Burger, Tatiana P. Flanagan, Trevor S. Nekola, Jordan G. Human societies have always faced temporal and spatial fluctuations in food availability. The length of time that food remains edible and nutritious depends on temperature, moisture, and other factors that affect the growth rates of organisms that cause spoilage.
Some storage techniques, such as drying, salting, and smoking, date back to ancient hunter—gatherer and early agricultural societies and use relatively low energy inputs.
Newer technologies developed since the industrial revolution, such as canning and compressed-gas refrigeration, require much greater energy inputs. Coincident with the development of storage technologies, the transportation of food helped to overcome spatial and temporal fluctuations in productivity, culminating in today's global transport system, which delivers fresh and preserved foods worldwide.
Because most contemporary humans rely on energy-intensive technologies for storing and transporting food, there are formidable challenges for feeding a growing and increasingly urbanized global population as finite supplies of fossil fuels rapidly deplete.
Although often taken for granted by consumers in modern, developed societies, maintaining a reliable food supply has always played a major role in the history of our species. The inescapable realities that food production is inherently patchy in both time and space and that all food inevitably spoils have led to numerous technological innovations in preservation, storage, and transportation, but their roles in shaping human history have arguably received insufficient attention from sustainability scholars and human ecologists.
Here we document the central roles that food preservation, storage, and transport played in the geographic expansion and socioeconomic development of human societies. We also show how these issues remain significant for the future of human civilization. Humans need to eat. Like other animals, humans require a reliable food supply to meet metabolic requirements for maintenance, growth, and reproduction.
Humans can withstand brief periods of fasting, but if deprived of all food, starvation usually occurs within 30 to 40 days Peel , Lieberson A minimal caloric diet does not ensure good health, however.
Because humans are omnivores, their caloric and nutritional needs can be met by eating a wide variety of foods. This dietary generalization provides some buffering against spatial and temporal fluctuations in food supply and has contributed to dramatic increases in human range size.
All food spoils. Some deterioration occurs through the spontaneous breakdown of complex organic molecules. Food can also be consumed by other animals, notably certain insects and rodents. However, most spoilage of food meant for human consumption is caused by microorganisms, which effectively compete with humans for limited and valuable food resources. Given access to unprotected foodstuffs, bacteria and fungi rapidly colonize, increase in population, and produce toxic and distasteful chemicals Janzen , Blackburn , Pitt and Hocking To help prevent microbe-caused food spoilage, humans use two main strategies: 1 obstructing colonization by reducing access to susceptible foodstuffs and 2 inhibiting population growth and limiting population size by creating an unfavorable environment.
Because microbes are so small, have such enormous populations, and often disperse as resistant air-, water-, or soil-borne spores, they rapidly colonize unprotected foodstuffs. Colonization can be retarded by covering or otherwise isolating foods, but it can be prevented only by sealing sterile food in an impermeable container. For example, many fruits, nuts, and bird eggs are encased in relatively impermeable skins, shells, or waxy layers that resist microbial invasion.
This is also the principle behind canning. The alternative, more commonly employed strategy is to retard spoilage by creating conditions that inhibit the growth or limit the size of microbial populations. Washing food, for example, removes some microbes from the surface, and techniques such as pasteurization and irradiation kill microbes.
Microbial population growth rates also depend on environmental conditions. The typical Q 10 values for microbes that spoil food range between 2. The temperature-dependent growth rates of various microbes involved in food spoilage. An exponential curve has been fitted to the data points for each culture using ordinary least squares. See supplemental table S1 for the data sources and statistical methods.
Microbial growth also varies with other environmental and physiochemical conditions. Growth rates are generally highest on substrates that provide a well-hydrated, well-balanced mix of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids and sufficient quantities of essential minerals Sterner and Elser These conditions are most readily met on fresh meat, fish, seafood, fruits, and some vegetables. Microbial growth rates are lower, and may approach zero, when the composition of food deviates from such ideal mixtures Blackburn , Pitt and Hocking Water content is especially important.
Microbes growing on fresh animal and plant tissues are in approximate osmotic balance, because the water content of active bacterial and fungal cells and of these substrates are similar Pennington and Douglass The dehydration of food causes osmotic physiological stress and reduced growth rates for the microbes Blackburn , Pitt and Hocking Some foods are naturally preserved by having low water content and high concentrations of osmotically active compounds.
In this condition, they can resist microbial growth and remain viable and nutritious for many years. Many nuts contain high concentrations of fats and oils but relatively little water and carbohydrate Pennington and Douglass In addition, many of the herbs and spices that have been used for millennia to preserve food produce secondary compounds that are distasteful, toxic, or antibiotic Mitscher , Swain The effect of increasing concentrations of essential oils of the common herb thyme in retarding spoilage by different species of bacteria.
Microbes were cultured in culture broth, and the time elapsed to grow to a threshold population density was recorded. The lines were fit using ordinary least-squares regression. Source: The data are from Marino and colleagues and Shils and colleagues Abbreviation: ppm, parts per million.
Depending on temperature, water content, nutrient composition, and the presence or absence of antibiotic compounds, foodstuffs remain nutritious and nontoxic to humans for periods from a few hours to many years.
Food scientists use shelf life to quantify the length of time a food can be stored and remain suitable for human consumption or commercial sale, but the storage times can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the identity of the foodstuff, environmental conditions, and methods of preservation figure 3. At one extreme, fresh fish, meat, shellfish, and many fruits and vegetables can be stored for only a few days, even under refrigeration see supplemental table S2. Foods that naturally contain little water, an unbalanced nutritional composition, or possess antibiotic compounds or protective layers last longer.
At the other extreme, dry seeds and frozen foods can be stored for years. The shelf life of representative food items, with and without the use of storage technology. The time to spoilage varies widely over untreated food, from less than a day in fish to over a month in root vegetables such as potatoes to many years in grains such as wheat that have been naturally dried on the stalk. The increase in shelf life that results from the use of storage technology varies widely by the technology used but can be orders of magnitude different.
See supplemental table S2 for additional information and data sources. Many of the food-processing techniques used to retard spoilage and extend shelf life date back over at least tens of thousands of years figure 3. When they could, hunter—gatherers avoided spoilage by eating food soon after harvest and by keeping animals and plants alive until they were eaten Bailey Nevertheless, most early cultures inhabited temporally and spatially fluctuating environments, so they collected food during times of abundance and stored it for times of scarcity.
They understood enough about the causes of spoilage and the variation in susceptibilities among different foods to develop simple, robust techniques for processing and storing foods. Through millennia of observation and experimentation and depending on geographic location and cultural history, humans developed many methods to extend the shelf life of common foodstuffs.
They learned how to manipulate osmotic conditions through the addition of sugars, salts, or lipids e. They learned to use the secondary metabolites in various herbs and spices not only to mask the odor and taste of partially spoiled food but also to slow microbial growth and retard spoilage. Because microbial growth rates increase with higher temperatures and water availability, preventing spoilage has always been a major problem in tropical climates.
It is no coincidence, therefore, that a wide variety of herbs and spices are used in the cuisines of tropical cultures throughout the world Billing and Sherman , Sherman and Billing By cultivating and domesticating wild plants, farmers were able to produce more food than they could themselves consume.
This led to the diversification and specialization of labor, with some members of the population devoted to other tasks, such as toolmaking, animal husbandry, defense, and religion. When milk from domesticated mammals became an important part of the diet of both sedentary and nomadic cultures, the shelf life of this highly perishable product was extended by separating the high-lipid cream and churning it to make butter, which is much more resistant to microbial spoilage.
In some cases, specific microbial cultures were added to milk to make fermented products, such as yogurt and cheese, that extended storage time and allowed humans with adult hypolactasia to consume them McCracken Lengthening storage times using beneficial microbial cultures and controlled fermentation also became an important way to preserve fresh vegetables e. For the most part, the storage technologies used by agriculturists were modest modifications of the methods developed by foraging societies.
For example, farmers in temperate climates harvested ice in the winter to keep stored food cold into the summer months, and agricultural societies in Mediterranean climates used ethanol, vinegar, brine, and olive oil to preserve a variety of foodstuffs. Changes in food-storage technologies accelerated with the transition from agricultural to industrial—technological societies.
The concentration of an ever-increasing proportion of the population in cities means that an ever-decreasing proportion of farmers and fishers must produce all the food and that larger harvest areas and longer supply lines are needed.
The increasing distance between harvesters and consumers means that spoilage must be prevented for longer periods, typically days to weeks, because food is transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometers.
The technological advances of the industrial age revolutionized the storage of many foodstuffs, allowing a greater variety of items to be preserved, but these new technologies often require large energy inputs to achieve increases in shelf life figure 4.
Canning—using a combination of heating to kill microbes and sealing the food in hermetic containers to prevent recolonization—was pioneered by Appert in and developed commercially by Donkin in Featherstone Refrigeration using compressed gas was pioneered in the early nineteenth century Reif-Acherman Freezing—the natural extension of refrigeration—was commercialized by Birdseye in and rapidly applied to preserve a wide variety of foodstuffs Archer Energy use for food storage in kilocalories per kilogram [kcal per kg].
Increased use of energy does not necessarily prolong shelf life. Much preservation still relies on ancient principles, which use little energy and can still preserve food for long periods.
The most conspicuous exception is compressed gas refrigeration, especially freezing, which requires continual energy input. The bounding ellipses show the storage time and energy inputs for different food types for that storage type.
Despite the impressive innovations and technological advances that accompanied the industrial revolution, most preservation of foodstuffs still relies on the principles discovered by ancient cultures: retarding microbial population growth by using low temperature, dehydration, wood smoke, unbalanced nutritional composition, osmotic stress, or organic chemicals.
Modern preservation techniques often combine multiple methods e. Even with the most modern techniques, the majority of the caloric requirements in contemporary industrial societies are typically met by cereal grains, which are still preserved primarily by simply keeping them dry. Food transport and storage are intimately interrelated, because transporting food over increasing distances requires preventing spoilage en route.
Advances in transportation technologies have played a major role in feeding the growing and increasingly urbanized human population. They are increasingly dependent on larger areas to produce enough food and on longer supply lines to import foodstuffs harvested on distant farms, grazing lands, oceans, lakes, and rivers. Advances in food transport have been achieved by some technological innovations that shorten transport time by increasing speed and others that decrease spoilage en route.
The first commercial fishing operations in Alaska were factories where fish were salted before being sent to outside markets. These salteries were converted into canneries where fish were processed and canned. The canneries became boom and bust towns, functioning at full capacity during the salmon run and becoming a ghost town the rest of the year. These industrial developments began popping up along the coasts, with many near areas that are now part of the National Park System. These sites became self-sustaining communities.
Canneries of Alaska
This section provides practical advice for consumers to help them transport, store and prepare seafood products to ensure safety and maximize quality. There are a number of very good resources for consumers on the safe handling and storage of seafood. The links to the web sites where these resources can be found are provided at the end of this page. If you would like more in-depth information, please go directly to these sites. Safe handling and storage of all food should follow the same basic guidelines that are listed below. However, seafood is more perishable then many food items, and the consumer must pay a little more attention to its careful handling.
Training & Education
The regulation became effective December 18, The agency also published the "Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guide" "the Guide" in September, , to assist processors in the development of their HACCP plans, and to provide information to help them identify hazards that may be associated with their products and formulate control strategies for those hazards. The guide was developed to coincide with the issuance of the final regulation. A large number of questions have been raised by the seafood industry, regulators, consumers, and others about interpretation of the regulation.
With the renewed popularity of seasonal, local eating, and the desire to be more environmentally friendly, many people are looking to home canning also known as home bottling to keep food for later use. While the food we eat in Canada is among the safest in the world, if home canned foods are not prepared or bottled properly they can cause botulism. Botulism is a serious and sometimes fatal illness you can get from eating improperly prepared, canned or bottled food. Botulism is caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria called Clostridium botulinum C. Botulism bacteria grow in a moist, oxygen-free environment so improper home canning and bottling can provide ideal conditions for it to multiply and produce the toxin. Symptoms of botulism usually appear within 12 to 36 hours after eating the contaminated food. These symptoms may include:. These symptoms will usually last two hours to 14 days but some can last longer. The groups at higher risk for serious health effects include pregnant women, children under the age of 5, adults over the age of 60, and people with weakened immune systems.
Canning and Fish Packaging Technology
It is to be used in conjunction with Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines for Selected New Source Industries, an OFA publication that includes a description of impacts common to most industrial sources. The requirement for Federal agencies to assess the environmental impacts of their proposed actions is included in Section of the National Environmental Policy Act of NEPA , as amended. Basic processing sequence for the seafood industry 17 2.
Before applying for a licence to operate a food processing establishment, coldstores and slaughter-house, you are required to register with Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority ACRA under the Business Registration Act Cap. To register, please click here. A licence from SFA is required before you can carry out any food processing or storage for wholesale distribution. A food processing establishment licence is required if you are carrying out any processing activities to the food products. If you are storing meat and seafood products without any processing activities, a coldstore licence is required. All food processing establishments, cold stores and slaughterhouses have to comply with the Wholesome Meat and Fish Act , Sale of Food Act and the licensing conditions. Food processing premises, cold stores and slaughterhouses should be located within a food zone area. If the site or building is found unsuitable, you will have to source for another location.
Oxidation and Antioxidants in Fish and Meat from Farm to Fork
Pacific Island countries and territories PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. The Pacific Island region comprises 22 countries and territories which are diverse in geography, population size, culture and economy. Population sizes vary from as little as 1, in Tokelau, the smallest Pacific Island territory to 7.
Click here to learn more about this change. Online culinary training program about Alaska salmon — earn 5 hours of continuing education credit from the American Culinary Federation. Visit the Wild Style site. A comprehensive species guide and glossary for sourcing Alaska seafood. Download Seafood A-Z. Click here to view the full size image of How to Steak Alaska Halibut. Click here to view the full size image of How to Fletch Alaska Halibut. Download these and additional cutting techniques in the Alaska Halibut Cutting Brochure.
Bhandary, C. Raju and S.
Seafood Handling and Storage
Sean T. Hammond, James H. Brown, Joseph R.
The term fish processing refers to the processes associated with fish and fish products between the time fish are caught or harvested, and the time the final product is delivered to the customer. Although the term refers specifically to fish, in practice it is extended to cover any aquatic organisms harvested for commercial purposes, whether caught in wild fisheries or harvested from aquaculture or fish farming. Larger fish processing companies often operate their own fishing fleets or farming operations.
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