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Wine ManagementVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Profitable Grape Wine Production Business
The circular economy refers to a term that defines an economy designed to be able to regenerate itself. Agri-food is one of the areas where the tools and strategies of the circular economy are implemented. The wine sector involving numerous stages of production and processing causes many impacts on the environment. Starting from the transport, to the distribution of wine products, there are several impacting processes on the environment. The grapes used in the production of red wine are Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappuccio; instead of Carricante and Catarratto grapes used for white wine.
This chapter provides a complete picture of the interactions between the product and the environment, to understand the environmental consequences and to provide the necessary information to define the best solutions.
In recent years, along with the continuous development of the binomial environment industry, strong critical attention and assessment in the risks and impacts on the environment has matured.
In the agri-food sector, it becomes very important to define carefully what are the environmental impacts and evaluate their weight, in order to improve or consolidate the quality of the production process. In the past, corporate objectives had little to do with the assessment of environmental impacts, rather they aimed almost exclusively at maximizing the quantity produced, remaining unrelated to everything that the production process caused.
In line with this trend, in the wine sector, in Italy, in recent years, we aim to produce quality wines, putting the quantity in the background; this allowed small producers to enter the market, thanks to the production of quality wines [ 1 ].
However, there is a change in trends regarding the size of producers: from small companies to large industrial companies. As a consequence this means more consumption, therefore higher emissions and impacts. The food industry disproportionately contributes to many global environmental problems.
The production of wine is not an exception to the rule: it contributes to a variety of environmental burdens, mainly related to the use of pesticides and fertilizers in the vineyard and to the production of glass bottles.
Target markets nowadays are more aware of ecological concerns than ever before; which means that costumers are increasingly more conscious of the products they are willing to buy and companies have to deal with this new context.
The concept of sustainability is taken into account seriously in the Italian wine sector. Moreover, the wine industry is an important contributor to the Italian economy, as it registers a sales volume of 9. For this reason, this study will analyze a proactive company in the field, Nicosia S. To this end, the European Union has identified an instrument that evaluates and analyzes the entire life cycle of a product, from its cradle to its grave: the life cycle assessment.
Thanks to this tool, companies can take steps toward the Green Economy road implemented by industrial symbiosis, also called industrial ecology. Industrial symbiosis, provided by industrial ecology, is an integrated management tool, which designs industrial infrastructures as if they were a series of interconnected ecosystems interfaced with the industrial ecosystem.
The basis of this process is collaboration and the opportunity for synergy between companies. For example, in the case of Cantine Nicosia, the residual vinecce from the vinification process are reused for the production of spirits; this is the demonstration of how relationships, albeit simple, are able to constitute examples of industrial symbiosis.
In particular, the study will focus on the inventory of a bottle of wine, the Lenza di Munti, by Nicosia S. The inventory is a real phase of the LCA, and in reference to the inherent standard [ 4 , 5 ], this consists in the quantitative description of all the flows of materials and energy that cross the boundaries of the business system, both incoming and outgoing.
Specifically, flow charts and data collection tables are used to prepare, with certainty of particulars, a complete and representative inventory of the product. In this study, each type of impact will be described, but above all that of CO 2 emissions. In this regard, many studies have highlighted what are the sources of CO 2 emissions in the wine sector, and they are: the phase of transport of inputs and outputs and waste management process and post process [ 6 ].
It will highlight the inter-company and inter-company functional relationships, representing those that are the subjects of the activity studied and the main actors, understanding those that are the bonds and relationships that exist between them.
The main actors involved in the activity studied are the company and its respective internal and external stakeholders including suppliers and customers. The subject of the study is the wine sector and specifically the set of interactions that exist between the products and the environment and therefore the environmental impacts that arise from these interactions. Companies of any dimensions are trying to modify their actions to handle their impact, to protect their reputation, and get prepared for stricter rules [ 5 ].
Using the LCA as an assessment tool of the impact of the wine sector sets some difficulties; in order to produce a bottle of wine several resources are needed, not only for the materials used for bottling but also we can have a great impact on the environment and also on mankind during the process of cultivation and treatment of grapes.
Until a decade ago, producers used to think that a moderate use of pesticides and fertilizers gave a higher quality of wine. Indeed, during the last years, different choices have been made like leaving vines to their natural process without adopting solutions intrusive for the environment as the use of pesticides.
The harvest is then carried by trucks from the vine to the factory; once in there, the product is processed by a mechanic wine press which extracts juice and pulp from grapes creating in this way the must that has to be then transformed in wine. It is a particular and delicate operation that must be performed carefully.
It is essential that the grapes have not been pressed by crushing during the transport because that could cause unwanted fermentation. Subsequently or simultaneously with the pressing, the grapes are placed in a special automatic crusher-stemmer that separates the skeleton of the bunches, or the green part, from the berries.
Once the must is obtained, it is left to ferment in special containers; the aim of this phase is to transform the sugars into alcohol and give the wine the desired features and smells; depending on the type of vinification, in white or red, the skins are removed from the must draining phase.
Once the fermentation days have passed, we proceed with the racking, in which the yeasts and the solid parts are separated from the wine. From this apparent waste, it is possible to obtain a second raw material, the marc, which is a primary part of the production process of some distillates such as grappa.
Once the racking is finished, the wine is subjected to the refining phase and at the right moment, the product is finished with the most invasive phase from an environmental point of view, which is bottling.
The use of LCA in environmental management and sustainability has grown in recent years as seen in the steadily increasing number of published papers on LCA methodology and on case studies that have been performed to use LCA [ 7 ]. In many cases, these studies show that the most polluting phases of a food production system consist in the agricultural ones. Therefore, the research about innovations and environmental improvements should be addressed, above all, to the agricultural stages, also taking into consideration the economic feasibility [ 8 ].
This tool allows the phases where environmental issues are focused on to be identified as well as those who are responsible for the burden. LCA is a standardized methodology, which gives it its reliability and transparency. According to the ISO standards on LCA, it can assist in: identifying opportunities to improve the environmental features of products at various points in their life cycle; decision making in industry, governmental or nongovernmental organizations e.
An LCA compiles the inputs and outputs from a production system, and in turn evaluates their potential environmental impacts, for example, GHG emissions [ 9 ]. The Italian olive-growing sector has to face both the growing competition on the international olive oil market and the shift of the common agricultural policy CAP from market and price policies toward direct aids decoupled from production.
A possible strategy to address this highly competitive scenario could be the renewal of olive groves through the adoption of innovative olive-growing models able to reduce production costs without worsening environmental sustainability. From the environmental point of view, goal of the LCA is to build up the environmental profile of the two systems, in order to assess them and to identify their hot spots [ 8 ].
Depending on the complexity of the problem that a company wants to face, it is possible to choose between different types of LCA, each of which allows an in-depth solution to be found. The first one is used only in the first phases, so that it often does not consider numerous aspects of the product lifecycle and does not make a comparison with other products.
The second one, even if it does not consider the entire lifecycle of the product, allows the comparison between different products. The last one is the best methodology used to provide product improvements. It is a methodology used for the economical evaluation of projects, in which the costs that come from owning, using, maintaining, and disposing of a certain product are considered vital to take a decision.
In the end, this tool allows the determination of the overall cost of a certain product, considering its entire lifecycle [ 11 ]. Cantine Nicosia was founded in when Francesco Nicosia, the great-grandfather of the current owner, decided to open the first wine shop in Trecastagni, on the eastern side of Etna. The decisive entrepreneurial turnaround took place at the end of the twentieth century, thanks to the tenacity and innovative spirit of the current owner, Carmelo Nicosia, who, investing in the expansion and renovation of the vineyards and in the construction of a modern winery, will bring the family business to be the protagonist of the rebirth of Sicilian wine.
Today, Cantine Nicosia is a dynamic, modern, and efficient company, capable of looking to the future with full respect for tradition.
The Trecastagni winery is the place where tradition combines with the most advanced technology. Cantine Nicosia produces prestigious autochthonous wines, promoting the territory in full respect of the environment and enhancing the raw materials. Cantine Nicosia is a sustainable company actively involved in the protection of natural resources, and the optimal management of water resources is one of the essential points.
Cellar work involves a high consumption of water, especially for cleaning and sanitation. In order to limit consumption, a system is implemented which, through the collection of both rainwater and reverse osmosis waste water, allows irrigation of farm lawns.
The subject of this study is a bottle of Lenza di Munti. It is necessary to list what the components of the bottle itself are: the glass bottle, the cork stopper, the label, and the aluminum cap. At this point, the load will reach the Nicosia estates by road transport. The cork stoppers come from the Colombin company, located in Trieste. The company is certified: the used cork comes from Portuguese forests certified FSC. The transport of the caps takes place through the sea.
The label is supplied by the company Moduli Continui s. Padua , and transport is by road vehicles. The capsule is supplied by Enoplastic S. Below, we will describe the uses and consumption of the listed parts. The final packaging consists of two elements: the cardboard containing the bottles and the packaging cellophane. The Lenza di Munti is a wine intended for large retailers. Its winemaking process takes place in red and white.
The analysis will focus on both vinification methods, generalizing the related consumption. Before moving on to the data collection, creating a flowchart in order to summarize and outline the production plant, in order to better understand which phases of the process we should analyze, according to our interests turned to be a useful practice.
This study has, therefore, highlighted the main phases of the production plant, namely the ones which need an attentive analysis of the consumption Figure 1 ; Tables 1 and 2. The data collection concerning any kind of consumption of the production plant makes it possible to make a list of the values about the main Nicosia S. As far as water consumption is concerned, it is possible to distinguish consumption in three macro consumption areas: Microfiltration plant;.
It is possible to notice that water consumption is closely connected to winemaking, since the daily consumption represents a larger amount than the week consumption of the other two activities which take advantage of water, namely microfiltration and cross-flow filtration equipment. Microfiltration is a filtration process, which removes solid particles from a fluid or from a gas, making them pass through a micro-porous membrane.
Typically, the diameter of the small holes of these membranes is between 0. In the field of winemaking, it is a process which is used in order to separate wine from all undesired substances; while, cross-flow filtration, which represents one of the most innovative processes in the field of filtration, improves the performance, not possible by any of the other processes concerning solid-liquid separation. In the field of drinks and winemaking, this process aims at making perfectly transparent the product, stabilizing it microbiologically and, in case, it is necessary, eliminating partially colloides and oxidant enzymes, all in one phase.
Doing so, all the following filtrations included the centrifuge , pasteurization, and an improvement in the processes of stabilization of the product would be eliminated. This would lead to a lesser loss and manipulation of the product, saving on coadjuvants and on the cost of labour, with an overall reduction of the costs and a greater protection of the initial qualities of the product.
Concerning energy consumption, and, consequently, the related impacts, this study as made a list of the kW consumed per month by the production plant.
The consumption values highlighted are between 29, and 43, kW specifically, the month with the minor consumption was November, while the one with the most consumption was April. In order to finish the product, thus producing the bottle of wine ready to be delivered to the consumer, it is necessary to put together some components, coming from different geographical areas. Consequently, this study cannot end just with the water and energy consumption.
In order to have an overall view of how much impact the production of a bottle of wine has, this study has to calculate the kilometers which exist between the different components of the containers and the place where the product is bottled.
Inside an enterprise, the production of an item is not all produced by the enterprise; taking into consideration the case of Nicosia S. As far as the cork concerns, the raw material comes from Portugal, from certified FSC forests, that is an international certification, an independent and of third party, specific for forests and the products—wooden and nonwooden ones—derived from the forests.
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Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine , starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol , and the bottling of the finished liquid. The history of wine -making stretches over millennia. The science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology. A winemaker may also be called a vintner. The growing of grapes is viticulture and there are many varieties of grapes.
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He is an expert on international conflict, foreign policy formation, the peace process, and nation-building. Siverson, and James D. Account Options Sign in. Ver eBook.
The event is the largest such exposition in North America, and it draws businesses from around the world exhibiting their wares, along with wine producers from all over the Western Hemisphere. They came, of course, for the networking opportunities, the chance to talk shop with their peers and all the rest of the socializing that goes with conventions of any kind. Attendees also came for seminars and discussions of grape-growing, winemaking, marketing and business analyses, and maybe even for the keynote speaker, who this year happened to be me. Mostly, they come for the hardware, exhibited by roughly companies and ranging from the mundane to the high-tech to the genetically manipulated. This may be close to the truth in some smaller family estates. But even the smallest, most idealistic producer requires winemaking equipment of some sort, and as production rises and the price of a bottle falls, winemaking can look far more like a factory operation than anything else. The sheer variety and complexity of the equipment required between vineyard, cellar and finished product can be astounding. Companies of every stripe are ready to step in to accomplish what wineries themselves choose not to do, from analyzing soil to see if it is suitable for grapevines to testing wines for their chemical and microbial content to managing tasting rooms. Producers love to say that wine is made in the vineyard, as if it happens by itself magically.
A professor of finance for nearly 30 years, Kolb worked with a team of 30 editors to produce this thoroughly researched set. They drew upon some scholars and business experts from around the world Robert W. Kolb is Professor of Finance and the Frank W. Knight Professor of Finance. He has published more than 50 academic research articles and more than 20 books. He is the general editor for the five-volume Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society.
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Pollutants are often viewed as an out of place or unwanted resource. The contributors to Valorization of Wine Making By-Products present broad information from a large selection of food science and chemistry research perspectives. The authors suggest that there are a myriad of potentially valuable constituents in viticultural and enological waste products. The monograph flows from an assessment of environmental concerns regarding these waste products through recognition of public, industrial, and governmental efforts to ameliorate their impacts.
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The circular economy refers to a term that defines an economy designed to be able to regenerate itself. Agri-food is one of the areas where the tools and strategies of the circular economy are implemented. The wine sector involving numerous stages of production and processing causes many impacts on the environment. Starting from the transport, to the distribution of wine products, there are several impacting processes on the environment.