In , the first group of students was enrolled in the programme Telecommunication Networks. In compliance with the national system of higher education BSUIR offers four full-time and two distance first degree programmes and four full-time Master's degree programmes with English as the course language. Modern infocommunication systems are based on packet switching nodes, enabling information distribution in transport nets, as well as access of stationary and mobile subscribers to various types of services, related to data and media voice, sound, image, video transfer. Various procedures for coding, filtration, compression and encryption of text, voice, sound and image are used to support multimedia technologies in modern devices and information distribution systems. Graduates obtain proper knowledge and skills to work in research, design and maintenance of infocommunication networks and systems.
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Computers Computer is a machine for performing calculations automatically. An expert at calculation or at operating calculating machines. A machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Memory and Processing. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures or algorithms that underlie the acquisition, representation , processing , storage , communication of, and access to information.
An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.
Computer Science Books wiki List of Computer Books wiki Theoretical Computer Science is a division or subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more abstract or mathematical aspects of computing and includes the theory of computation , which is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.
The field is divided into three major branches: automata theory and language, computability theory, and computational complexity theory, which are linked by the question: "What are the fundamental capabilities and limitations of computers? Doctor of Computer Science is a doctorate in Computer Science by dissertation or multiple research papers. Computer Engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software.
Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering or electrical engineering , software design, and hardware—software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering.
Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microcontrollers, microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture. Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems.
Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications, and sensors. In many institutions, computer engineering students are allowed to choose areas of in-depth study in their junior and senior year, because the full breadth of knowledge used in the design and application of computers is beyond the scope of an undergraduate degree.
Other institutions may require engineering students to complete one or two years of General Engineering before declaring computer engineering as their primary focus. Computer Architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation.
In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation. Minimalism in computing refers to the application of minimalist philosophies and principles in the design and use of hardware and software.
Minimalism, in this sense, means designing systems that use the least hardware and software resources possible.
Remote Communication. Don't Repeat Yourself is a principle of software development aimed at reducing repetition of software patterns, replacing it with abstractions or using data normalization to avoid redundancy. You Aren't Gonna Need It is a principle of extreme programming XP that states a programmer should not add functionality until deemed necessary.
Rule of Least Power is a design principle that "suggests choosing the least powerful [computer] language suitable for a given purpose". Worse is Better is when software that is limited, but simple to use, may be more appealing to the user and market than the reverse.
The idea that quality does not necessarily increase with functionality —that there is a point where less functionality "worse" is a preferable option "better" in terms of practicality and usability.
Unix Philosophy is bringing the concepts of modularity and reusability into software engineering practice. Computer Types Personal Computer is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user , rather than by a computer expert or technician.
Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes , time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers. Super Computers - First Computer - Artificial Intelligence - Smartphones Portable Computer was a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another and included a display and keyboard. Operating Systems. Laptop is a small portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, typically having a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the clamshell and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
The clamshell is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are folded shut for transportation , and thus are suitable for mobile use. Its name comes from lap, as it was deemed to be placed on a person's lap when being used. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks the former being bigger and heavier than the latter , as of , there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work , in education , for playing games , I nternet surfing , for personal multimedia, and general home computer use.
Most modern laptops feature integrated webcams and built-in microphones, while many also have touchscreens. Laptops can be powered either from an internal battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter.
Hardware specifications, such as the processor speed and memory capacity, significantly vary between different types, makes, models and price points. Design elements, form factor and construction can also vary significantly between models depending on intended use. Examples of specialized models of laptops include rugged notebooks for use in construction or military applications, as well as low production cost laptops such as those from the One Laptop per Child OLPC organization, which incorporate features like solar charging and semi-flexible components not found on most laptop computers.
Portable computers, which later developed into modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications, such as in the military, for accountants, or for traveling sales representatives. As the portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes.
Tablet Computer is a mobile device, typically with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package. Modern tablets largely resemble modern Smartphones , the only differences being that tablets are relatively larger than smartphones, with screens 7 inches 18 cm or larger, measured diagonally, and may not support access to a cellular network.
Desktop Computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
The most common configuration has a case that houses the power supply, motherboard a printed circuit board with a microprocessor as the central processing unit CPU , memory, bus, and other electronic components , disk storage usually one or more hard disk drives, optical disc drives, and in early models a floppy disk drive ; a keyboard and mouse for input; and a computer monitor, speakers, and, often, a printer for output.
The case may be oriented horizontally or vertically and placed either underneath, beside, or on top of a desk. Workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. The term workstation has also been used loosely to refer to everything from a mainframe computer terminal to a PC connected to a network, but the most common form refers to the group of hardware offered by several current and defunct companies such as Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, Apollo Computer, DEC, HP, NeXT and IBM which opened the door for the 3D graphics animation revolution of the late s.
Industrial PC is a computer intended for industrial purposes production of goods and services , with a form factor between a nettop and a server rack. Industrial PCs have higher dependability and precision standards, and are generally more expensive than consumer electronics.
They often use complex instruction sets, such as x86, where reduced instruction sets such as ARM would otherwise be used. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage is best remembered for originating the concept of a digital programmable computer.
List of Pioneers in Computer Science Great Inventions Difference Engine youtube Difference Engine is an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions. The name derives from the method of divided differences, a way to interpolate or tabulate functions by using a small set of polynomial coefficients. Most mathematical functions commonly used by engineers, scientists and navigators, including logarithmic and trigonometric functions, can be approximated by polynomials, so a difference engine can compute many useful tables of numbers.
The historical difficulty in producing error-free tables by teams of mathematicians and human "computers" spurred Charles Babbage's desire to build a mechanism to automate the process.
Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage. It was first described in as the successor to Babbage's difference engine, a design for a mechanical computer. The Analytical Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete.
In other words, the logical structure of the Analytical Engine was essentially the same as that which has dominated computer design in the electronic era. Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding. It was not until the s that the first general-purpose computers were actually built, more than a century after Babbage had proposed the pioneering Analytical Engine in Computer History - Super Computers Hardware Hardware is the collection of physical components that constitute a computer system.
Computer hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as monitor , keyboard , computer data storage, hard disk drive HDD , graphic card, sound card, memory RAM , motherboard , and so on, all of which are tangible physical objects. By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware.
Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system. Computer Hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing unit , monitor, keyboard, computer data storage , graphic card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.
Hardware is so-termed because it is "hard" or rigid with respect to changes or modifications; whereas software is "soft" because it is easy to update or change.
Intermediate between software and hardware is "firmware", which is software that is strongly coupled to the particular hardware of a computer system and thus the most difficult to change but also among the most stable with respect to consistency of interface. The progression from levels of "hardness" to "softness" in computer systems parallels a progression of layers of abstraction in computing.
Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware components.
Hardware Architecture refers to the identification of a system's physical components and their interrelationships. This description, often called a hardware design model, allows hardware designers to understand how their components fit into a system architecture and provides to software component designers important information needed for software development and integration.
Clear definition of a hardware architecture allows the various traditional engineering disciplines e. Processors Computer Architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Memory Computer Memory refers to the computer hardware devices involved to store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term " primary storage ".
Computer memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory RAM , as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access program and data storage but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage, through a memory management technique called " virtual memory ".
An archaic synonym for memory is store. The term " memory ", meaning "primary storage" or "main memory", is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i.
There are two main kinds of semiconductor memory, volatile and non-volatile. Most semiconductor memory is organized into memory cells or bistable flip-flops, each storing one bit 0 or 1. Flash memory organization includes both one bit per memory cell and multiple bits per cell called MLC, Multiple Level Cell.
The memory cells are grouped into words of fixed word length, for example 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 or bit. Each word can be accessed by a binary address of N bit, making it possible to store 2 raised by N words in the memory. This implies that processor registers normally are not considered as memory, since they only store one word and do not include an addressing mechanism.
Typical secondary storage devices are hard disk drives and solid-state drives. Memory Cell in computing is the fundamental building block of computer memory. The memory cell is an electronic circuit that stores one bit of binary information and it must be set to store a logic 1 high voltage level and reset to store a logic 0 low voltage level.
Computer technology and automated systems have already become an integral part of our society. It is impossible to imagine our lives without smartphones with plenty different applications, PCs, and supercomputers that can beat a person in chess or help us investigate the outer space. Specialists of this sector can develop computer technologies and systems and introduce these developments into various areas of human activities. Such specialists create controllers that help factory machines work, provide elevator control systems to tall buildings, develop control systems for aerospace machinery and robots.
Complex System Failure: The Whole is More than the Sum of its Parts
Computers Computer is a machine for performing calculations automatically. An expert at calculation or at operating calculating machines. A machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Memory and Processing.
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It has been created for joint development and further commercialization of the lead-bismuth fast neutron reactor technology SVBR. JSC AKME-engineering has the intellectual property rights for the SVBR technology and is a competence center for implementation of the projects of construction multi-functional nuclear power complexes in the global energy market. The SVBR-based projects meet requirements for reactor technologies of the Generation IV, have the high safety level which is achieved due to intrinsic safety which is based on advantages of the heavy metal coolant. Integrated truck, minibuses and limousine transportation services for nuclear companies since Nuclear industry security agency established in to provide security services to nuclear companies, safeguard nuclear materials and equipment, and monitor access control policies at guarded facilities.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Future of Data Storage
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A future with strong roots
A complex system is an arrangement of a great number of related but various elements with intricate relationships and interconnections. Complex systems typically have input from many sources and are highly changeable. In the physical world, the earth's weather is one example of a complex system. Chaos theory deals with the apparent lack of order and predictability in complex systems.
Artificial intelligence AI makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. Most AI examples that you hear about today — from chess-playing computers to self-driving cars — rely heavily on deep learning and natural language processing. Using these technologies, computers can be trained to accomplish specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns in the data. The term artificial intelligence was coined in , but AI has become more popular today thanks to increased data volumes, advanced algorithms, and improvements in computing power and storage. Early AI research in the s explored topics like problem solving and symbolic methods. In the s, the US Department of Defense took interest in this type of work and began training computers to mimic basic human reasoning. This early work paved the way for the automation and formal reasoning that we see in computers today, including decision support systems and smart search systems that can be designed to complement and augment human abilities. Instead, AI has evolved to provide many specific benefits in every industry.
Open Technologies has been working on construction of supercomputers from and offers both classic solutions based on standard architecture servers and more effective hybrid supercomputers. Successful construction and operation of supercomputer is ensured by Open Technologies advantages, such as:. Open Technologies has licenses of the Federal Security Service of Russia, including license for works connected with use of information comprising state secret which allowed it to receive experience in implementation of large projects in state bodies. Among them: engineering structure designing, building designing; designing of cars, vessels and aircrafts; designing of electronic and semiconductive devices; computational fluid dynamics CFD ; modeling of atmosphere and World ocean, weather forecasts; geological surveys; various mathematical physics tasks; astrophysics and space research; molecular sciences, genetics; modeling in medicine, including ASPDC; development of drugs; parallel DBMS, electronic commerce and information systems; virtual reality and visualization, image processing; nuclear power energetics; military tasks; training complexes; on-board, integrated systems, real-time systems; financial analysis, stock machines, etc. We provide services on: construction of hybrid supercomputers; supplies of standard configuration hybrid supercomputers; modernization of classic structure supercomputers; organization of engineering infrastructure with due account of supercomputer requirements; organization of monitoring and control system for high performance complex; trainings for users. Astafiev Open Technologies has licenses of the Federal Security Service of Russia, including license for works connected with use of information comprising state secret which allowed it to receive experience in implementation of large projects in state bodies. Modernization of data processing center. Computer system.
"Informatics and Computer Engineering"
Beyond these everyday experiences, there have been critical computer system bugs and defects that have resulted in the loss of human life such as the people who died on-board the Boeing Max 8 flights in Indonesia and Ethiopia during —, the people who perished on Iran Air Flight when it was mistakenly shot down as an enemy combatant by the USS Vincennes in , the 28 US soldiers who were killed in by Iraqi Scud missiles that penetrated through an errant Patriot missile defense system, and the 6 patients overdosed by the Therac radiation machine during — Thanks to the general purpose nature of boolean logic and binary arithmetic represented in silicon integrated circuits that can be composed to calculate, store and communicate, computer systems have become woven into the fabric of Life; they help manage human activities and assets in a remarkable array of fields including commerce, education, entertainment, government, healthcare, infrastructure, military, science, and transportation. However as computers expand their reach and human reliance upon them grows, our modern economy and society bears substantial costs and serious risks for these computer systems defects and IT project problems. The strategic areas of this failure model are familiar for those already in IT: Technology , Organization , and Process. The Process area is comprised of Scope , Flow , and Communications. The Organization realm consists of Culture , Governance , and Resources. Some of these parts affect others within their area and also connect across the broader area boundaries.
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In October a Task Force was organized by the Advanced Research Projects Agency now the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to study and recommend appropriate computer security safeguards that would protect classified information in multi-access, resource-sharing computer systems. A slightly modified version of the report — the only omissions were two memoranda of transmittal from the Task Force to the Chairman of the Defense Science Board and onward to the Secretary of Defense — was subsequently published as Rand Report R, Security Controls for Computer Systems. At that time it was felt that because representatives from government agencies participated in the work of the Task Force, the information in the report would appear to be of an official nature, suggestive of the policies and guidelines that would eventually be established.
Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports. Avail: USGS. Originals of many reports from the US Geological Survey, which may Federal Republic of Germany, at the price shown in deutschmarks DM.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Infrastructure consists of facilities and services that are needed across an entire enterprise.
Олвин оказался перед выбором, который он отказывался принимать. Ему хотелось исследовать Лиз, узнать все его тайны, открыть для себя те его стороны, которыми он отличается от его родины, но в то же самое время он был преисполнен решимости возвратиться в Диаспар, чтобы доказать друзьям, что он вовсе не какой-то праздный мечтатель.
Он никак не мог понять этого стремления сохранить тайну Лиза. Но и, пойми он его, это ничуть не сказалось бы на его намерениях.