Accidental freezing of canned foods will not cause spoilage unless jars become unsealed and recontaminated. However, freezing and thawing may soften food. If jars must be stored where they may freeze, wrap them in newspapers, place them in heavy cartons, and cover with more newspapers and blankets. Do not taste food from a jar with an unsealed lid or food which shows signs of spoilage. You can more easily detect some types of spoilage in jars stored without screw bands. Growth of spoilage bacteria and yeast produces gas which pressurizes the food, swells lids and breaks jar seals.
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Seafood Handling and Storage
Introduction This note summarizes the main ways in which fish is handled, processed and distributed in Britain, both at sea and on shore. It is principally written for those concerned in industrial training; more detailed information on particular aspects of fish handling and processing is given in other notes in this series, and the reader is referred to some of these where appropriate.
The principles and practice of handling and processing are dealt with at length in the book Fish Handling and Processing, Second Edition edited by G. The topics outlined in this note include the handling of wet fish, smoked fish, frozen fish, dried and salted fish, canned fish and shellfish, and the manufacture of fish meal and other byproducts.
Handling wet fish Much of the fish landed in Britain is preserved by chilling in ice from the time it is caught until it reaches the consumer. Fish preserved in this way is known as wet fish. A growing proportion of the catch is frozen at sea immediately after capture, and considerable amounts of iced fish are frozen at the ports after landing; these operations are described under freezing and cold storage.
White fish, that is those species in which most of the fat is in the liver and the flesh is lean, are handled in much the same way on all sizes of vessel. The catch is released from the net on to the deck, gutted immediately, washed, and stowed with ice in boxes or compartments below deck. Gutting of round fish like cod, haddock and whiting means slitting the belly from throat to vent, removing the liver and cutting out the guts to leave the belly cavity empty.
This operation is traditionally done by hand with a knife, but gutting machines are coming into use on both large and small ships to make the task of the fisherman easier. Gutting helps to preserve the fish by removing the main source of spoilage bacteria and digestive juices which attack the flesh of the fish after death. On the larger fishing vessels the livers are cooked in steam boilers to extract the liver oil, but on small boats the livers are discarded with other offal.
The gutted fish are washed to remove traces of blood and debris, and to wash away most of the bacteria present on the skin and in the gills of the fish. The washing equipment on small boats may be simply a hose and an open mesh basket, but on large trawlers a more sophisticated washing tank with circulating water is in general use.
In these washers the fish are discharged over a weir and down a chute to the fishroom below deck. Fishrooms for iced fish are mainly of two types, either an undivided hold in which the catch is stowed in boxes, or a hold divided by partitions into a number of sections called pounds in which the catch is stowed on portable shelves.
About one part of ice to three parts of fish by weight is required to protect fish for up to 5 days; one part of ice to two of fish is needed for longer voyages. White fish, promptly gutted, washed, and stowed in ample ice, will keep in first class condition for days, become stale after days, and are unlikely to be edible after days.
Boxed stowage is usual on smaller fishing vessels, and the practice of boxing is gradually being extended to larger ships, since the method has a number of advantages including delivery of the fish to the merchant undisturbed by rehandling at the port market, ease of identification of size, species and time in ice, and avoidance of damage and loss of weight during stowage. Ice plants, particularly older ones at the larger ports, supply crushed block ice to fishing vessels, but more recently built plants, particularly at smaller ports where ice was not locally available in the past, usually deliver small, smooth pieces of ice known as flake ice.
Flake ice is normally bulkier than crushed block ice, but weight for weight the cooling capacity of all types of ice, made by any method and from hard or soft fresh water, is the same. The fish are cooled when heat is absorbed by the surrounding ice, which is thus melted. Further cooling is obtained when the cold meltwater trickles down between the fish. To this end, most fishrooms on large vessels are completely insulated, and fishrooms on small boats often have partial insulation.
Mechanical refrigeration plants are installed on one or two inshore vessels and on some, but by no means all, larger ones; their main purpose is to conserve ice on the outward voyage, and to keep the fishroom air cool during fishing; they have little or no direct effect on the stowed fish, which depend for cooling almost entirely on the surrounding ice.
Fatty fish, like herring, sprats, mackerel and pilchards, i. They are usually put below straight from the net, and iced in boxes. The keeping time of fatty fish in ice is much less than for white fish; the attack by bacteria and digestive juices is much more rapid because the fish are ungutted, and the fat absorbs oxygen to produce rancid flavours and odours.
Herring for example are normally required to be in the hands of the port processors within days after catching to give a first class product, although for some outlets it is possible to keep herring with a low fat content for days in ice. Stowage at sea in refrigerated sea water is a possible alternative to ice as a means of rapidly cooling large quantities of small fatty fish, although the method is not yet in general use in the UK.
The following Advisory Notes, expand the information on handling wet fish at sea: 4 Take care of your catch; 7 The protection of wood in fishrooms, by J. Waterman; 11 Handling inshore fish, by J. Waterman; 15 Bulking, shelfing or boxing? Waterman; 21 Which kind of ice is best? Waterman; 32 Superchilling, by J. Waterman and D. Taylor; 33 The cod, by J. Waterman; 42 Fish for caterers and friers, by J.
Early and R. Malton; 44 Handling fish before canning, by R. McLay; 47 Handling and processing saithe, by J. Smith and R. Most of the large ports are on the east coast, including the three biggest. Hull, Grimsby and Aberdeen. At a few remote landing places, particularly on the west coast of Scotland, where no local processing facilities are available, the catches are discharged and consigned by road to the processing centres on the east coast.
Comparatively small amounts of white fish are dispatched unprocessed, repacked in fresh ice, to inland destinations but most white fish is filleted in premises at, the port. Although machines are available for filleting most species, a large proportion of the catch, particularly when handled by the smaller processing firms, is still filleted by hand. The fillets, which constitute roughly per cent by weight of the gutted whole fish, are either packed in ice in non-returnable boxes and sent to inland wholesalers and retailers, or are further processed at the port, mainly by smoking or freezing, or both.
A high proportion of the herring catch goes to the kipper trade, and herring for this outlet is split or filleted by machine for making kippers and kipper fillets respectively. The traditional container for inland carriage of fillets has been the non-returnable wooden box, mainly in units of 7 and 14 lb, but this has been superseded in many large firms by a waterproof fibreboard box and, to a lesser extent, by an expanded polystyrene box, which has some advantage as an insulated container but is more susceptible to damage due to rough handling during transit.
Fish is nowadays mostly carried by road transport from the ports and the biggest companies have their own fleets of insulated and refrigerated vehicles carrying fish either to inland distribution depots or direct to customers, while many smaller merchants at the ports share a long-distance transport pool. Although the better carriers use vehicles with adequate insulation, often supplemented by mechanical cooling units, some fish is still carried under less satisfactory conditions on open lorries; much greater reliance has then to be placed on ice and on the insulating properties of the boxes to protect the contents during distribution.
Most retailers keep the bulk of their supplies in chillrooms on the premises and only display a selection on ice, often in refrigerated cabinets. The following Advisory Notes expand the information on handling wet fish on shore: 1 The care of the fishmongers fish, by G. Burgess; 3 The handling of wet fish during distribution;, 10 Fishworking premises - materials and design, by J. Waterman; 12 Fish display in retail shops; 16 Non-returnable fish boxes, by J.
Wignall; 17 Measures, stowage rates and yields of fishery products, by J. Malton; 45 Cleaning in the fish industry, by I. Tatterson and M. Smoked fish Fish is smoked nowadays mainly to give it a pleasant flavour rather than to preserve it. Present day products are therefore only lightly salted and smoked and will not remain edible for much more than a week at ordinary temperatures.
The smoking process consists of passing wood smoke over the surface of the fish, in a kiln. Typical smoked products are the finnan haddock, smoked cod fillet, the golden cutlet and the kipper. Some hot smoked products in this country are sprats, eels, trout, buckling made from herring, and Arbroath smokies made from small haddocks. Two types of smoking kiln are in general use, the traditional chimney kiln and the Torry mechanical kiln.
It is estimated that more than half of the smoked fish made in Britain is now produced in mechanical kilns, and the proportion is continually increasing. Before smoking, the fish are immersed in a brine solution. This assists in removing some of the water in the fish, thus tending to firm the flesh. The salt imparts a flavour to the product, but concentration and purity of the salt are extremely important and require to be carefully controlled.
A 70 to 80 per cent saturated brine is used in most modern smoke cures. A traditional kiln Following the salting treatment, pre-drying of the fish is required in order to remove some of the moisture prior to smoking. For this purpose, the fish are hung to drip on open racks. The source of smoke is almost universally a smouldering fire of hardwood chips and sawdust; although more sophisticated smoke producers have been made from time to time, and are used for smoking other foods, these have so far made little impact on the fish trade.
In the traditional chimney kiln, the open fires are at the base of a tall, brick-built structure in which the fish are hung on rails of various types called banjoes, speats or tenters, and thus exposed to the rising smoke and warm air. The repositioning of the fish during smoking and eventual removal of the finished products are slow hand operations which require the services of a skilled craftsman in order to produce a satisfactory article.
In the mechanical kiln, the fires are contained in separate fireboxes, and the smoke is blown horizontally through trolleys holding fish in the kiln; the fish may be hung on rails or laid on trays, either of which are supported in the trolley. The temperature and speed of the mixture of smoke and air is carefully controlled to give a uniform product throughout the kiln in a much shorter time than is possible in the chimney kiln.
Fish handling is much reduced using the mechanical kiln which can also readily be incorporated in the factory production line. Partial drying as well as smoke deposition is an essential part of the smoke curing process; typically a kipper which should lose about 14 per cent in weight during smoking will require hours in a traditional kiln, but only 4 hours in a mechanical one. Most cold smoked fish products are only lightly coloured by the smoke, and so a permitted dye is normally added to the brine bath through which the fish pass before going into the kiln, in order to enhance the appearance of the finished product.
A Torry mechanical kiln The following Advisory Notes expand the information given on smoked fish: 5 Recommendations for the preparation of smoked salmon, by A. Bannerman and J. Horne; 9 Smoked white fish - recommended practice for producers; 14 Smoked fish - recommended practice for retailers; 37 Catching, handling and processing eels, by J.
Horne and K. Birnie; 48 Kippers, by A. Burgess and A. Bannerman, published by HMSO Freezing and cold storage of fish It is perfectly feasible to keep fresh fish for many months without perceptible change in the eating quality by rapidly freezing it soon after catching and then storing it at a suitably low and constant temperature.
With this method of preservation, the thawed product is virtually indistinguishable from the best fresh fish. Freezing has revolutionized the fish processing industry in Britain since the Second World War. FREEZING FISH Heat is removed from the fish in the freezing process either by surrounding the fish with a stream of cold air, by placing the fish in contact with a cold surface or by spraying with certain liquid refrigerants.
Three main types of freezing plant are used that employ these techniques, the air blast freezer, the plate freezer and the immersion freezer. The air blast freezer is essentially a tunnel in which a fast-moving stream of very cold air is blown over the fish, which are placed on trolleys or on a moving belt. The air blast freezer is most suitable for a wide range of sizes of fish, and for products of irregular shape.
The plate freezer is more compact than the air blast freezer, and is most useful for handling fish products that are uniform in thickness and that have a reasonably flat surface which can make good contact with the cold plates. Two versions of the plate freezer are in general commercial use, the horizontal and the vertical types. The horizontal plate freezer, used mainly in land installations, handles many of the catering and retail fish products that are already packed in cartons prior to freezing.
Trays of packs are slid between pairs of horizontal plates, the plates are closed tightly on to the packs by hydraulic pressure to make good contact, and a cold refrigerant is circulated through serpentine passages within the plates; a retail pack 3 cm thick takes about an hour to freeze.
The trend is clear: consumers want simple, ready-to-eat and convenient seafood choices. With the increasing demand for processed seafood, the global canned fish market is rising. As the demand goes up, Europeans are increasingly calling for improved quality and health guarantees. Canned fishes are processed and preserved in a sealed airtight container such as a tin or aluminium can. Water, oil or sauce is usually added to the fish and the can is sterilised.
Fish & seafood
Handling your catch of the day begins with cleaning, and icing or freezing the fish as soon as possible. The four most popular methods of fish preservation are freezing, canning, smoking and pickling. Top quality fresh fish are essential for fish preservation. Of all flesh foods, fish is the most susceptible to tissue decomposition, development of rancidity and microbial spoilage. Safe handling of fish is important to reduce your risk of foodborne illness and to produce a quality meal.
Canned fish are fish which have been processed , sealed in an airtight container such as a sealed tin can , and subjected to heat. Canning is a method of preserving food , and provides a typical shelf life ranging from one to five years. Fish have low acidity , levels at which microbes can flourish. From a public safety point of view, foods with low acidity pH greater than 4. Achieving temperatures above the boiling point requires pressurized cooking.
With an average consumption of Do not, however, mistake Europe for a single market. It is a diverse group of countries with separate but interrelated markets. Success in Europe depends on an understanding of the needs of the different target markets and audiences. Consumption varies between countries. The Portuguese eat, on average, 57 kg per person per year, while Hungarians only eat 5. With these numbers, Portugal really stands out in Europe and is worthwhile for you to study. Among the six largest countries, by population, annual per capita consumption varies from
What is the demand for fish and seafood on the European market?
This page was archived due to the coming into force of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. Archived information is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes only. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived.
This section provides practical advice for consumers to help them transport, store and prepare seafood products to ensure safety and maximize quality. There are a number of very good resources for consumers on the safe handling and storage of seafood. The links to the web sites where these resources can be found are provided at the end of this page. If you would like more in-depth information, please go directly to these sites. Safe handling and storage of all food should follow the same basic guidelines that are listed below. However, seafood is more perishable then many food items, and the consumer must pay a little more attention to its careful handling. How long your fresh seafood will last depends on the condition of the product when you purchased it See selecting seafood and on how well you take care of it. When storing fresh seafood, keep it in the coldest part of the refrigerator. Fish will lose quality and deteriorate rapidly with higher storage temperature — so use ice when you can. Always purchase seafood last during your shopping trip, and bring a cooler to transport it home. If you have caught your own fish, do not let them sit on the deck until you come back to the dock.
Food Industry. Both in meat and especially in fish there is a high risk of quality loss due to oxidation [ 1 , 2 ]. Lipid oxidation in meat and fish-products leads to rancid taste and off flavor and development of many different substances from which some have even adverse effects to human health e. Oxidation limits storage time and thereby also affects marketing and distribution of both fish and meat products. Especially fish, being rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA is susceptible to peroxidation of PUFA resulting in restriction of storage and processing possibilities [ 4 ]. Furthermore, peroxidative products, particularly aldehydes, can react with specific amino acids to form carbonyls [ 5 ] and protein aggregates [ 6 ], causing additional nutritional losses. In red meat and also in red fish like salmon oxidation will not only deteriorate the lipids, but also the color [ 7 , 8 ] and thereby affect visual consumer acceptability.
Archived - Seafood
Conventional canning methods provide products with a longer shelf life than many other shelf-stable foods. Photo courtesy of Prexels. Canning is a method of thermal food preservation in which a food product and its container are commercially sterilized, rendering the contents shelf stable for long periods of time. There are two types of canning: conventional canning and aseptic processing. In this column, the history and market will be presented, the science explained, and applications and forecast discussed. I wish to thank my co-author, Sandy Thai, food technologist at the U. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, for contributing to this column. In , Nicolas Appert devised canning in glass jars because the French government offered a reward for a new method of food preservation to feed French soldiers during wartime. Soon after, tin canisters were used to preserve foods in this manner.
The European market potential for canned fish
Conventional canning methods provide products with a longer shelf life than many other shelf-stable foods. Photo courtesy of Prexels.
Processing of fish
The fishing sector, or fishing industry, is a part of the primary sector, and is an economic activity based entirely on fishing and producing fish, shellfish and any other product from the sea for later consumption or as use as a raw material. Fish not only forms part of the diet of the human being, but is also used in many other products that are part of our daily lives; such as oils and certain special flours used in cooking. Therefore, talking about it as a vital part of society is something that goes without saying. The leading countries are China
Oxidation and Antioxidants in Fish and Meat from Farm to Fork
Fish and seafood have a high nutritional value but are at the same time sensitive, perishable foods. The functions that packaging has to fulfil are accordingly diverse. And requirements are constantly growing, for the materials used to produce it are today expected to be as sustainable and recyclable as possible.
Давным-давно мы пожертвовали нашим бессмертием, Диаспар же все еще следует ложным мечтам. Вот почему наши пути разошлись - и вот почему они никогда не должны пересечься. Слова эти отнюдь не были неожиданными, но ведь предугадать удар не значит ослабить .