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Space product machines and devices for measuring mechanical quantities

Space product machines and devices for measuring mechanical quantities

Version 2. Once it comes into effect, it will supersede all previous versions. This manual is intended for use by prospective and current authorized service providers and Measurement Canada employees. It explains what establishment and device information to enter in Measurement Canada's Online Reporting Application ORA relating to examinations conducted under the authority of the Weights and Measures Act. The term "examination" is used in this manual as it is in the Weights and Measures Act and has the same meaning as the term "inspection". Within this manual, ORA field names are indicated by white text on a black background.

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Content:

Strain Gages

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NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity. Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories.

The most common equipment-related hazards in laboratories come from devices powered by electricity devices for work with compressed gases, and devices for high or low pressures and temperatures. Other physical hazards include electromagnetic radiation from lasers and radio-frequency generating devices. Seemingly ordinary hazards such as floods from water-cooled equipment, accidents with rotating equipment and machines or tools for cutting and drilling, noise extremes, slips, trips, falls, lifting, and poor ergonomics account for the greatest frequency of laboratory accidents and injuries.

Understandably, injuries to the hands are very common in the laboratory. Care should be taken to use appropriate gloves when handling laboratory equipment to protect against electrical, thermal, and chemical burns, cuts, and punctures. The use of water as a coolant in laboratory condensers and other equipment is common practice. Although tap water is often used for these purposes, this practice should be discouraged. In many localities conserving water is essential and makes tap water inappropriate.

In addition, the potential for a flood is greatly increased. Refrigerated recirculators can be expensive, but are preferred for cooling laboratory equipment to conserve water and to minimize the impact of floods. To prevent freezing at the refrigeration coils, using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol as the coolant is prudent.

Spills of this mixture are very slippery and must be cleaned thoroughly to prevent slips and falls. Most flooding occurs when the tubing supplying the water to the condenser disconnects. Hoses can pop off when building water pressure fluctuates, causing irregular flows, or can break when the hose material has deteriorated from long-term or improper use. Floods also result when exit hoses jump out of the sink from a strong flow pulse or sink drains are blocked by an accumulation of extraneous material.

Proper use of hose clamps and maintenance of the entire cooling system or alternative use of a portable cooling bath with suction feed can resolve such problems. Plastic locking disconnects can make it easy to unfasten water lines without having to unclamp and reclamp secured lines. Some quick disconnects also incorporate check valves, which do not allow flow into or out of either half of the connection when disconnected.

This feature allows for disconnecting and reconnecting with minimal spillage of water. To reduce the possibility of overpressurization of fittings or glassware, consider installing a vented pressure relief device on the water supply.

Interlocks are also available that shut off electrical power in the event of loss of coolant flow and are recommended for unattended operations. Electrically powered equipment is used routinely for laboratory operations requiring heating, cooling, agitation or mixing, and pumping. Electrically powered equipment found in the laboratory includes fluid and vacuum pumps, lasers, power supplies, both electrophoresis and electrochemical apparatus, x-ray equipment, stirrers, hot plates, heating mantles, microwave ovens, and ultrasonicators.

Attention must be paid to both the mechanical and the electrical hazards inherent in using these devices. High-voltage and high-power requirements are increasingly prevalent; therefore prudent practices for handling these devices are increasingly necessary.

Electric shock is the major electrical hazard. Although relatively low current of 10 mA poses some danger, 80 to mA can be fatal. In addition, if improperly used, electrical equipment can ignite flammable or explosive vapors. Most of the risks can be minimized by regular proper maintenance and a clear understanding of the correct use of the device. Before beginning any work, all personnel should be shown and trained in the use of all electrical power sources and the location of emergency shutoff switches.

Information about emergency procedures can be found in section 7. Particular caution must be exercised during installation, modification, and repair, as well as during use of the equipment.

Trained laboratory personnel should also consult state and local codes and regulations, which may contain special provisions and be more stringent than the NEC rules. All repair and calibration work on electrical equipment must be carried out by properly trained and qualified personnel.

Before modification, installation, or even minor repairs of electrical equipment are carried out, the devices must be deenergized and all capacitors discharged safely. All new electrical equipment should be inspected on receipt for a certification mark. If the device does not bear one of these certification marks, the device should be inspected by an electrician before it is put into service. Each person participating in any experiment involving the use of electrical equipment must be aware of all applicable equipment safety issues and be briefed on any potential problems.

Trained laboratory personnel can significantly reduce hazards and dangerous behavior by following some basic principles and techniques: checking and rechecking outlet receptacles section 7. All V outlet receptacles in laboratories should be of the standard design that accepts a three-prong plug and provides a ground connection.

Replace two-prong receptacles as soon as feasible, and add a separate ground wire so that each receptacle is wired as shown in Figure 7. Representative design for a three-wire grounded outlet. The design shown is for A, V service.

The specific design will vary with amperage and voltage. It is also possible to fit a receptacle with a ground-fault circuit interrupter GFCI , which disconnects the current if a ground fault is detected. GFCI devices are required by local electrical codes for outdoor receptacles and for selected laboratory receptacles located less than 6 ft 1.

These devices differ in operation and purpose from fuses and circuit breakers, which are designed primarily to protect equipment and prevent electrical fires due to short circuits or other abnormally high current draw situations. Certain types of GFCIs cause equipment shutdowns at unexpected and inappropriate times; hence, their selection and use need careful planning.

Be aware that GFCIs are not fail-safe devices. They significantly reduce the possibility of fatal shock but do not entirely eliminate it. Locate receptacles that provide electric power for operations in laboratory chemical hoods outside the hood. This location prevents the production of electrical sparks inside the chemical hood when a device is plugged in or disconnected, and it also allows trained laboratory personnel to disconnect electrical devices from outside the hood in case of an accident.

Cords should not be routed in such a way that they can accidentally be pulled out of their receptacles or tripped over. Simple inexpensive plastic retaining strips and ties can be used to route cords safely. For laboratory chemical hoods with airfoils, route the electrical cords under the bottom airfoil so that the sash can be closed completely.

Most airfoils are easily removed and replaced with a screwdriver. Fit laboratory equipment plugged into a V or higher receptacle with a standard three-conductor line cord that provides an independent ground connection to the chassis of the apparatus see Figure 7.

Ground all electrical equipment unless it is double-insulated. This type of equipment has a two-conductor line cord that meets national codes and standards. The use of two-pronged cheaters to connect equipment with three-prong grounded plugs to old-fashioned two-wire outlets is hazardous and should be prohibited. Standard wiring convention for V electric power to equipment. Use a standard three-conductor extension cord of sufficient rating for the connected equipment with an independent ground connection.

In addition, good practice uses only extension cords equipped with a GFCI. Install electrical cables properly, even if only for temporary use, and keep them out of aisles and other traffic areas. Install overhead racks and floor channel covers if wires must pass over or under walking areas. Do not intermingle signal and power cables in cable trays or panels. Special care is needed when installing and placing water lines used, for example, to cool equipment such as flash lamps for lasers so that they do not leak or produce condensation, which can dampen power cables nearby.

Equipment plugged into an electrical receptacle should include a fuse or other overload protection device to disconnect the circuit if the apparatus fails or is overloaded.

This overload protection is particularly useful for equipment likely to be left on and unattended for a long time, such as variable autotransformers e. If equipment does not contain its own built-in overload protection, modify it to provide such protection or replace it with equipment that does. Overload protection does not protect the trained laboratory personnel from electrocution but does reduce the risk of fire. Laboratory personnel should be certain that all electrical equipment is well maintained, properly located, and safely used.

To do this, review the following precautions and make the necessary adjustments prior to working in the laboratory:. All laboratories should have access to a qualified technician who can make routine repairs to existing equipment and modifications to new or existing equipment so that it will meet acceptable standards for electrical safety.

When operating or servicing electrical equipment, be sure to follow basic safety precautions as summarized below. Unless laboratory personnel are specially trained to install or repair high-current or high-voltage equipment, reserve such tasks for trained electrical workers. The following reminders are included for qualified personnel:.

The use of water aspirators is discouraged. Their use in filtration or solvent-removal operations involving volatile organic solvents presents a hazard that volatile chemicals will contaminate the wastewater and the sewer, even if traps are in place. Water and sewer contamination may result in violation of local, state, or federal law. These devices also consume large volumes of water, present a flooding hazard, and can compromise local conservation measures.

Distillation or similar operations requiring a vacuum must use a trapping device to protect the vacuum source, personnel, and the environment. This requirement also applies to oil-free Teflon-lined diaphragm pumps. Normally the vacuum source is a cold trap cooled with dry ice or liquid nitrogen.

Even with the use of a trap, the oil in a mechanical vacuum trap can become contaminated and the waste oil must be treated as a hazardous waste. Vent the output of each pump to a proper air exhaust system. This procedure is essential when the pump is being used to evacuate a system containing a volatile toxic or corrosive substance. Failure to observe this precaution results in pumping the untrapped substances into the laboratory atmosphere. Scrubbing or absorbing the gases exiting the pump is also recommended.

Even with these precautions, volatile toxic or corrosive substances may accumulate in the pump oil and thus be discharged into the laboratory atmosphere during future pump use. Avoid this hazard by draining and replacing the pump oil when it becomes contaminated. Follow procedures recommended by the institution's environmental health and safety office for the safe disposal of pump oil contaminated with toxic or corrosive substances.

General-purpose laboratory vacuum pumps should have a record of use to prevent cross-contamination or reactive chemical incompatibility problems. Belt-driven mechanical pumps must have protective guards.

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NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity. Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories.

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We've made some changes to EPA. The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning HVAC system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools. The choice and design of the HVAC system can also affect many other high performance goals, including water consumption water cooled air conditioning equipment and acoustics See Acoustics.

6 Simple Machines: Making Work Easier

We make companies smarter by providing them high-quality sensor solutions. Our solutions enable our customers to automate , save costs , solve problems or develop new technologies. You are designing a new product or machine, and somewhere a force or weight must be measured. The standard product range of force sensors and load cells don't offer a suitable solution.

There are therefore various considerations to take into account prior to site acquisition: A.

Industries and organizations have been using various kinds of sensors for a long time but the invention of the Internet of Things has taken the evolution of sensors to a completely different level. IoT platforms function and deliver various kinds of intelligence and data using a variety of sensors. They serve to collect data, pushing it and sharing it with a whole network of connected devices. By combining a set of sensors and a communication network, devices share information with one another and are improving their effectiveness and functionality. Take Tesla vehicles as an example. All of the sensors on a car record their perception of the surroundings, uploading the information into a massive database. The data is then processed and all the important new pieces of information are sent to all other vehicles.

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

Information provided in this safety guide is based on current scientific and technical understanding of the issues presented and is reflective of the jurisdictional boundaries established by the statutes governing the co-authoring agencies. Following the advice given will not necessarily provide complete protection in all situations or against all health hazards that may be caused by indoor air pollution. All of us face a variety of risks to our health as we go about our day-to-day lives. Driving in cars, flying in planes, engaging in recreational activities, and being exposed to environmental pollutants all pose varying degrees of risk.

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Instrumentation is the process of controlling, measuring and analyzing physical quantities using various types of interconnected process control instruments. Various types of instrumentation are used to measure variables including temperature, gas and fluid flow rates, fluid levels, pressure, and pH in production and manufacturing settings. Engineers use sensors and various other types of instrumentation to monitor and maintain process control equipment for improved production, product consistency and quality management, and workplace safety in manufacturing and processing facilities. Process control instrumentation is also critical for preventing fire or explosion in facilities that store or process oil, gas, chemicals and other combustible substances. There are numerous industries that utilize process control equipment and instrumentation, including:. Branom Instrument Co. We have the right process instrumentation for nearly any application, from gas analytics to automation to pressure monitoring. Follow the links below to find instrumentation and process control equipment for your application.

measure on the economical handling of coal and it will be agreed that foundry is again handled many times by mechanical devices and in addition sand, flasks, Thus again in another step towards the finished product the application of proper 2, 3 and 6, where stampings, machine parts, and electric motors are being.

Different Types of Mechanical Measuring Tools and Gauges Used on Ships

Even the latest machines are the same at their core: they use an X, Y, and Z axis to define the coordinate space inside the machine, and a tool sometimes an endmill, sometimes an extruder, sometimes a laser beam moves around that space. The technology might change, but the fundamentals remain essentially the same. Additive machines build a part from the bottom up. However, something like a milling machine has to subtract material away from an external object. To do this, the machine needs to understand the position of the stock in physical space. If only it was as simple as shoving a block of metal into your CNC and pressing go.

Strain Gauge

Throughout history, humans have developed several devices to make work easier. The most notable of these are known as the " six simple machines ": the wheel and axle, the lever, the inclined plane, the pulley, the screw, and the wedge, although the latter three are actually just extensions or combinations of the first three. Because work is defined as force acting on an object in the direction of motion, a machine makes work easier to perform by accomplishing one or more of the following functions, according to Jefferson Lab :. Simple machines are devices with no, or very few, moving parts that make work easier. Many of today's complex tools are just combinations or more complicated forms of the six simple machines, according to the University of Colorado at Boulder. For instance, we might attach a long handle to a shaft to make a windlass, or use a block and tackle to pull a load up a ramp. While these machines may seem simple, they continue to provide us with the means to do many things that we could never do without them.

The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

A student in Professor Martin Culpepper's Course 2. Internal Combustion Engines. Design and Manufacturing I. Finite Element Procedures for Solids and Structures.

Mechanical engineering

Measurement, loosely defined is the length, amount, or size of something that is measured. That was, until the 18th century where measurement became a cohesive system.

Measuring instrument

Mechanical Engineering takes in all built structures and moving parts flown in space, which includes automation and robotics, instruments for scientific missions as well as assessing the effects of the space environment on materials. So while Electrical Engineering is centred on the motion of electrons this set of disciplines focuses on the movement of everything else: how satellite structures react to the extreme accelerations, vibrations and temperature shifts experienced during launch and orbit, the performance of moving devices in vacuum conditions, the passage of light through optical systems and the inner workings of engines and other propulsion systems.

Velocity or volume measurements can often be used with engineering handbook or design information to reveal proper or improper performance of an airflow system. The same principles used to determine velocity are also valuable in working with pneumatic conveying, flue gas flow and process gas systems. However, in these fields the common units of velocity and volume are sometimes different from those used in air conditioning work. To move air, fans or blowers are usually used.

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