In celiac patient exposure to even only a small amount of gluten can lead to malabsorption of some important nutrients including calcium, iron, folic acid, and fat-soluble vitamins because of small-intestine inflammation. A strictly followed gluten-free GF diet throughout the patient's lifetime is the only effective treatment for celiac disease; however, elimination of gluten from cereal-based product leads to many technological and nutritional problems. This report discusses different substitutes to replace gluten functionality and examines the economic and social impacts of adherence to a GF diet. Better knowledge about the molecular basis of this disorder has encouraged the search for new methods of patient treatment. The new and common GF sources and different challenges encountered in production and consumption of these products and different solutions for improving their properties are discussed in this review.
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Glutenin and gliadin are two major components of gluten that are essentially required for developing a strong protein network for providing desired viscoelasticity of dough.
This paper reviews the recent advances in the formulation of cereal-based, gluten-free products by utilizing alternate flours, starches, gums, hydrocolloids, enzymes, novel ingredients, and processing techniques. The pseudo cereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, are promising in gluten-free diet formulation. Genetically-modified wheat is another promising area of research, where successful attempts have been made to silence the gliadin gene of wheat using RNAi techniques.
The requirement of quantity and quality for gluten-free packaged foods is increasing consistently at a faster rate than lactose-free and diabetic-friendly foods. More research needs to be focused on cereal-based, gluten-free beverages to provide additional options for CD sufferers. In terms of production, wheat is third in order with about million tons grown in , compared to and million tons rice and maize, respectively 1.
Wheat has the widest geographical distribution, being grown and consumed as a staple food in both highly industrialized western countries Western Europe, North America and in developing countries China, Brazil, India. Wheat consumption in food increased from The storage proteins of the various cereals have been given common names: gliadins prolamins and glutenins glutelins of wheat, secalins of rye, hordeins of barley, avenins of oats, zeins of maize, oryzins of rice, and kafirins of millet and sorghum.
Out of these storage proteins, the gluten proteins of the various cereals are gliadins prolamins and glutenins glutelins of wheat, secalins of rye, hordeins of barley, and avenins of oats. According to differences in solubility, the gluten proteins had been divided into two fractions, prolamins and glutelins. The prolamin fraction contains mainly monomeric proteins insoluble in water and salt solutions but soluble in aqueous alcohols e. Glutelins are polymerized by interchain disulphide bonds and insoluble in water, salt solutions, and aqueous alcohols.
Gluten-free diets should include abstinence from not only wheat but also bread, biscuits, noodles, and other processed foods prepared using rye, barley, and oats. Rice, corn maize , sorghum, and pearl millet products are safe staples in the diet for such patients. For labeling purposes, gluten—free also means the food is free from any ingredients that contain gluten or must have been processed to remove gluten, to a level of 20 ppm or less 4.
In the present review an attempt has been made to summarize the issue of gluten intolerance and technological interventions for developing gluten-free products. Gluten intolerance is an enteropathy triggered by ingestion of prolamine present in wheat, rye, and barley 5. Ingestion of gluten causes serious damage to small intestine mucosa differentiated by inflammation, lymphocytic infiltration, villous flattening, and crypt hyperplasia. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss are typical gastrointestinal symptoms of diagnosed active celiac disease CD ; however, the silent form of celiac disease occurs often in adults 6.
The human gastrointestinal enzymes pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin were unable to hydrolyze the mer peptide due to their inability to cleave before or after proline or glutamine, leaving the epitopes intact. The subsequent deamidation or transamidation of gluten peptides by TG2 results in increased CD-immunoreactivity compared to unmodified gluten peptides. Gluten intolerance normally affects young children, but researchers have established that many adults in wheat growing areas are victims of celiac disease.
The first accurate clinical description of CD showed that broad flat villi and a dense chronic lymphoepithelial inflammatory cell infiltrate the small intestinal mucosa of patients CD was thought to be a rare disease, with a prevalence of about 0. The exclusive treatment for celiac disease is lifelong total avoidance of gluten ingestion by avoiding the consumption of wheat, rye, and barley.
There is a growing trend among people who are not sensitive to gluten, but who consciously choose a gluten-free diet in pursuit of a perceived healthier lifestyle. The prevalence of celiac disease can be explained by the iceberg model Accurately diagnosed cases of symptomatic celiac disease are placed on top as the visible section of the iceberg in quantitative terms.
This section of the iceberg represents the group consisting the different clinical manifestations of celiac disease. They include both gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms: the most common are chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain or bloating, vomiting, and weight loss.
These patients show no or very minimal symptoms. These silent cases must take gluten-free diets and are at risk to get moved to the top of the iceberg. At the bottom of the iceberg, there is a group of patients with latent celiac disease who do have the genotype of susceptible genetic markers, HLA-DQ2 or DQ8, but are asymptomatic to celiac disease and are consuming wheat-based food.
For confirmation of serological results, the histological judgment of small intestinal mucosa is commonly regarded as the gold standard for the reliable diagnosis of CD. In the case of doubtful diagnostic results, HLA-DQ genotyping can be used to rule out the existence of CD because of its high negative predictive value.
Although many methods, such as immunochemistry-based analytical methods, PCR, MS, and HPLC have been utilized for measuring the content of gluten in gluten-free products, only a few are recommended on the basis of sensitivity, selectivity, speed, and precision with easy availability. Currently, R5 antibody-based competitive ELISA is an internationally accepted choice for gluten analysis, whereas monoclonal G12 and A1 are other alternatives for the effective detection of epitopes of gliadin mer prolamins Now a subsequent second-generation competitive assay is released using a mixture of hydrolyzed prolamins from wheat, rye, and barley as a new calibrator which directly relates to the threshold values of gluten in gluten-free foods given by the Codex Alimentarius Standard This recognition sequence is repeated three times within the gliadin mer peptide.
The ELISAs are most commonly used for gluten analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and suitability for routine analysis in the absence of an independent reference method.
However, due to its requirement for expensive equipment and expertise, it is not widely used for routine analysis. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is used as an independent reference method to determine gliadin, glutenin, and gluten concentrations.
Clear differences in monoclonal antibody mAb responses to hexaploid, tetraploid and, especially, diploid wheat species were observed and the pAb ELISA was the only kit to detect gluten from einkorn wheat New developments include immunosensors, aptamers, microarrays, and multianalyte profiling for detecting the gluten in food.
In bread making, gluten acts as a structural protein. The gluten protein can be separated from flour by washing out with running water along with the removal of starch and other minor components. According to the solubility of gluten proteins in alcohol-water solutions, it has been divided into soluble gliadins, providing viscosity and extensibility to dough, and the insoluble glutenins glutelines account for the toughness, elasticity, viscosity of dough.
The gliadins are monomer and glutenins are polymer with high and low molecular weight subunits. The glutenins fraction of the gluten protein is insoluble in alcohol and exists as polymeric proteins stabilized by inter-chain disulphide bonds.
In addition, numerous proteins linked with disulphide bonds are present in gluten either as monomers or as oligomers and polymers, which are enriched with the lowly charged amino acids glutamine and prolamins The high molecular weight HMW subunits of glutenin are considered to be the main determinant of the viscoelastic properties of gluten and dough.
After complete hydration the glutenins become rough and rubbery, whereas gliadin makes a viscous fluid bulk upon hydration. The highly visco-elastic strong dough is formed because of the high content of high molecular weight glutenin polymers. The polymeric high molecular weight subunits of glutenin create an elastomeric network for providing a backbone to interact with the remaining subunits of glutenin and with monomeric gliadins The inter-chain disulphide bonds play a key role in stabilizing the network.
The properties of gluten become evident after the hydration of flour, which improves the gas holding capacity and creates extensible dough with a high-quality crumb structure for the bread In the absence of gluten, liquid batter is produced, which results in an inferior crumbling texture in the bread, with poor color and qualities after baking.
The role of gluten is more important in pasta making, as the gluten creates a tough protein network to prevent the disintegration of pasta during cooking. But the risk of such problems is low during the preparation of gluten-free biscuits and cookies, as the development of a gluten protein network in its dough is minimally required except semi-sweet biscuits which may require gluten network. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products is still a challenge to both for cereal-cum-baking technologists.
Replacing gluten functionality has been a challenge for food technologists. The absence of gluten leads to weak cohesion and elastic doughs which results in a crumbling texture, poor color, and low specific volume in bread.
Hence, during the last few years, numerous studies have been attempted for improving the physical properties of gluten-free foods, especially baked and fermented foods, by utilizing the interaction of the many ingredients and additives which could mimic the property of gluten Strengthening additives or processing aids has been fundamental for miming gluten's iscoelastic properties 93 , where mainly hydrocolloids have been used for building an internal network able to hold the structure of fermented products.
Simultaneously with the same intention, different crosslinking enzymes such as glucose oxidase, transglutaminase, and laccase have been used to create a protein network within the flour proteins However, the success of gluten-free products relied on the type of effect of the enzymes as gluten-free processing aids, type of flour, enzyme source, and level.
Generally, the combinations of ingredients and the optimization of the breadmaking process have resolved the technological problems, yielding gluten-free products that met the consumer's expectations concerning texture and appearance of the fresh bread Research methodology along with references for developing new generation gluten-free products. Gluten-free starches are used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing, and anti-staling ingredients in absence of gluten, where the extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source.
In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, color, and crumb structure and texture.
Corn, rice, buckwheat, waxy high amylose oat, potato, quinoa, sorghum, tapioca, teff wheat, and amaranth have been used as conventional sources of starch, whereas acorn, arracacha, arrowroot, banana, black beans, breadfruit, cana, chestnut, chickpea, cow pea, faba bean, innala, kudzu, lentils, lotus, mung bean, navy bean, oca, pinto bean, sago, taro, tania, white yam, yam, yellow pea have been used as unconventional sources of starch The granule size, surface and composition help in decision-making regarding the method of processing grinding or extrusion cooking; dehulling, soaking, or germination; autoclaving, puffing, baking, frying, roasting, microwave cooking, or irradiation for ensuring better hydrolysis and improved gelatinisation behavior of starches, with a lower level of retrogradation of amylose Conventionally alternate flours are used for two different reasons: first, to lower or remove the use of wheat for economic reasons in underdeveloped regions or countries and second, to change the nutritional characteristics of a product by protein, vitamins, or mineral enrichment, especially for CD patients.
The nutritional quality of bakery products prepared solely using wheat can be improved by adding protein-rich legume flours and other cereal grains. Bread is traditionally produced from wheat flour which is grown globally, but non-wheat growing countries like Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria import wheat or bread to meet their domestic demand. The flours, whole flours, bran products, proteins of legumes, oilseeds, and other minor cereals can be used effectively for nutritional improvement of bakery products.
Attempts have been made to enrich bakery products with nutritionally-rich ingredients for their diversification 23 , 31 , 36 , 61 , These products also encourage the utilization of non-wheat cereals that are not commonly consumed by many people.
Also, the product can be formulated to meet specific dietary requirements, leading to low-calorie bread, high-fiber bread, gluten-free bread, and diabetic bread including protein enrichment. Making bread without any wheat would require a suitable substitute for gluten for CD-susceptible people. Work on gluten-free bread is not new, because dietetic breads for use by patients with celiac disease have been developed using various starches while omitting gluten.
There are many alternate flours with special attributes to replace or minimize the use of wheat in baking. Corn contains a storage protein called zein, which is unrelated to gluten in its primary structure and different than the types of gluten found in the traditional gluten-containing cereals like wheat, barley, and rye.
The maize endosperm proteins simply lack the additional elastic high molecular weight glutenin subunits HMW-GS function of wheat, and the addition of a minor amount of this or another similar protein would confer viscoelasticity to the mixture. Based on these preliminary data it is now hypothesized that the addition of co-protein, such as HMW subunits of glutenin in wheat gluten, improves the viscoelasticity of zein dough systems. The gliadin-zein hypothesis has been supported by a rheological and physicochemical study of the effect of HMW-GS addition to gliadin and zein composites 98 , with an attempt made to relate structural and rheological data.
This study suggested that the rheological properties of zein improved with the incorporation of high molecular weight glutenine HMWG and provided basic information for future investigations on developments for gluten-free products.
One study confirmed the improvement of some patients with refractory celiac disease on GFD when a corn-free diet was prescribed The Celiac Sprue Association, the largest non-profit celiac disease support group in the in USA, reported that the zein protein of corn does not cause any allergic reaction in people and corn flour is quite safe as an ingredient in the formulation of gluten-free products such as bread, corn tortillas, chip, and crackers.
Rice starches have enormous potential for formulating gluten-free baked products and are commercially available across the globe. As required for special diets, the rice lack gluten, and have low contents of sodium, with high levels of easily-digested carbohydrates. It was reported that bread prepared using white rice flour after incorporating of rice bran improved flavor, but the phytic acid reduced the bioavailability of minerals Different levels of defatted bran and yeast were used in making breads for investigating their effects on the phytate contents, and it was observed that a higher content of bran decreased phytate degradation whereas yeast content had no significant effect.
The Phenolic content was highest in violet rice However, total anthocyanins were highest in violet, nerone, and black rice flours. Sorghum Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is an essential grain of grass family Graminae and tribe andropoggonae.
The chapter aims to approach food fortification naturally as a result of the need for nutritional improvement and therefore underlines sustainable activities that would facilitate effective fortification. The need to fortify food is due to the close link between human, health, and food. The WHO and FAO and other internationally recognized organizations have recognized that there are over 2 billion people worldwide suffering from a variety of micronutrient deficiencies. The interest in the fortification of foods is largely due to bioactive compounds, such as vitamins, minerals, sugars, organic acids, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, essential amino acids, and antioxidants. The most effective and accessible way of securing the population with vitamins and micronutrients is to fortify additional food and consumer products daily.
What is Enriched Flour?
Flour is a finely ground powder prepared from grain or other starchy plant foods and used in baking. Although flour can be made from a wide variety of plants, the vast majority is made from wheat. Dough made from wheat flour is particularly well suited to baking bread because it contains a large amount of gluten, a substance composed of strong, elastic proteins. The gluten forms a network throughout the dough, trapping the gases which are formed by yeast, baking powder, or other leavening agents.
Chemical Composition of Bakery Products
Glutenin and gliadin are two major components of gluten that are essentially required for developing a strong protein network for providing desired viscoelasticity of dough. This paper reviews the recent advances in the formulation of cereal-based, gluten-free products by utilizing alternate flours, starches, gums, hydrocolloids, enzymes, novel ingredients, and processing techniques. The pseudo cereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, are promising in gluten-free diet formulation. Genetically-modified wheat is another promising area of research, where successful attempts have been made to silence the gliadin gene of wheat using RNAi techniques. The requirement of quantity and quality for gluten-free packaged foods is increasing consistently at a faster rate than lactose-free and diabetic-friendly foods.
Foods made with wheat flour have an especially important role to play during an economic crisis. As incomes decrease, people may limit their intake of more expensive foods such as meat, fruits, and vegetables. But they are likely to continue or increase their consumption of flour-based foods such as bread and pasta. Making sure these staple foods have a high nutritional content can make up for some of the nutritional loss from not eating the higher priced commodities. Offering a superior product is the goal of bakers around the world, but knowing precisely which flours will provide the best nutritional content and baking performance can be daunting. Some global guidelines can be used to simplify the process. Following these recommendations will help the bread, biscuits and pasta made with fortified and improved flour enhance the health of consumers and satisfy customers. A basic reminder is that nothing substitutes for quality wheat. Flour millers may be tempted to buy cheaper, lower quality grain , but nothing can convert inferior wheat into superior flour. For improved nutrition, the World Health Organization has published guidelines for the amount of minerals and vitamins to add to flour during milling.
Food Additives and Processing Aids used in Breadmaking
Handbook of Food Chemistry pp Cite as. Cereals have always occupied a preferential place in the food pyramid that gathers dietary guidelines. Despite society lifestyle changes, cereal-based goods are still the main players in the human diet, although their worldwide contribution to dietary patterns is different. Bread is the main bakery consumed product worldwide, although the concept of bread comprised thousands of different products regarding their processing, shapes, composition, and so on.
So far this manual has dealt with the reasons why feeding fish and shrimp is advantageous. The major components of feedstuffs lipid, protein, etc. Now we come to the questions Which feed can I use? Do I have to use a mixture of feeds or will a single feedstuff do? What effect does the physical form of the diet have? As in the case of all of the topics in this manual, these questions are very broad. The manual aims to introduce the topics and to answer the questions in a preliminary way, leaving the reader to explore the subject further on his own. References on this subject are given at the end of the section in 'further reading'. Table 10 Ingredient Categories 1.
Top 15 sources of plant-based protein
Deciding what foods to buy was simpler when most food came from farms. Now, factory-made foods have made chemical additives a significant part of our diet. And don't forget to cut back on sugar and salt, which cause more harm than all the other additives combined. See our Overview of Food Additives Infographic to learn more. Learn more here. Artificial sweetener: "Diet," "no sugar added," "sugar-free," and other products, including soft drinks, drink mixes, baked goods, gelatin desserts, frozen desserts, yogurt, candy, chewing gum, packaged tabletop sweeteners.
Gluten-Free Products for Celiac Susceptible People
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Correspondence: Lidiane M. Received: December 08, Published: January 19, Chlorella and spirulina microalgae as sources of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements; an overview. DOI: Download PDF. Chlorella and Spirulina are the two of the most well-known microalgae genus. Chlorella genus is a eukaryotic microorganism , whereas Spirulina genus cyanobacteria is a prokaryotic microorganism. Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae and their derivatives are concluded not to be widely commercially exploited. However, they are remarkable sources of functional foods, nutraceuticals and food supplements.
Ver eBook. People from the Asian Pacific region were among the first in the world to utilize algae for various purposes. References to algae have been found in Chinese classic writings dating back some years ago. It is perhaps no surprise that the traditional focus on algae in the region has been on their potential as a resource.
We all process foods everyday when preparing a meal for ourselves or our family and virtually all foods undergo some form of processing before they are ready to eat. Some foods are even dangerous if eaten without proper processing. Food processing includes any action that changes or converts raw plant or animal materials into safe, edible and more enjoyable, palatable foodstuffs. In large-scale food manufacture, processing involves applying scientific and technological principles to preserve foods by slowing down or stopping the natural processes of decay.
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I was there undercover, to attend an annual trade show called Food Ingredients. It is not open to the public.