Emulsion: The emulsifier-paraffin mass may, on the other hand, be allowed to cool, whereupon a pasty or solid mass results. It finds use in emulsify mixer of paraffin oil and amino silicone oils to get stable milky emulsion. Paraffin wax is a tasteless and odorless, white, translucent solid. Anionic co-emulsion of carnauba and paraffin waxes Provides slip, release and anti-blocking properties in a number of applications from wood coatings to synthetic and natural lattices.
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Emulsions and EmulsificationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: KARL SCHNELL Emulsifier FL175 D_180_Babyfood production
E-mail: sabbasifood modares. The fabrication of concentrated nanoemulsions provides potential advantages such as loading capacity enhancement, storage and transportation costs reduction, and creation of novel textures. The current study investigated the capability of high power ultrasound on nanoemulsification of high concentration triglyceride using various natural emulsifiers saponin, whey protein isolate, lecithin and sucrose monopalmitate.
They also presented shear-thinning behavior with relatively low consistency coefficients. Owing to such characteristics, they could have potential applicability in formulation of soft foods, creams, sauces, salad dressings, pastes, lotions, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
However, most nanoemulsions to date are diluted, but in certain applications, particularly in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, it is worthwhile to prepare concentrated nanoemulsions. For example, concentrated nanoemulsions and nanogels could potentially improve the loading capacity of liphophilic ingredients in nano-encapsulation systems for gels, creams, and pastes.
Such advantages could be useful in the production of low fat foods, with a consistency similar to original one, without using fat substitutes. The nature and concentration of emulsifiers, homogenization method as well as processing conditions are usually the most influencing parameters of the concentrated nanoemulsion production. Based on a most recent report, the concentrated nanoemulsions and nanogels can be fabricated by using high power ultrasound using a synthetic surfactant.
The application of ultrasonic homogenization, using a wide variety of surfactants and co-surfactants, has been successfully examined in production of nanoemulsions from diverse lipid phase namely long-chain triglycerides LCT , 13—15 medium-chain triglycerides or MCT, 16 essential oils 17—19 and lipophilic nutraceuticals.
In addition, the employed technique has some advantages namely; less energy consumption, low capital investment and maintenance costs, ease of operation, and low equipment contamination over other high energy methods. They produce alternating high- compression and low-pressure rarefaction cycles during which air bubbles form, grow and eventually, at a critical volume, collapse.
Such a violent collapse generates high shear forces, intense local heating and turbulence which results in droplet disruption in nanometer dimensions. Selecting an appropriate emulsifier is the most challenging part of nano-emulsification process.
The safety and effectiveness of the selected emulsifiers are also highly concerned particularly in edible products. An ideal emulsifier should have rapid adsorption rate on the freshly formed interface during homogenization, high capability to reduce the interfacial tension and preventing the droplet aggregation.
Accordingly, during the last two decades scientists attempted to examine the ability of proteins, 25—27 polysaccharides, 28,29 phospholipids 30 and small molecule bio-based emulsifiers 31 on the formation and the stabilization of edible emulsions.
The current study was therefore aimed to determine whether the concentrated nanoemulsions could be formed under high power ultrasonication by using commercially available natural emulsifiers saponin, whey protein isolate or WPI, lecithin and sucrose monopalmitate or SMP. The influence of different sonication conditions as well as the emulsifier concentration on the formation and stability of the nanoemulsions was also examined. Finally, the rheological properties of the resulted nanoemulsions were determined.
The rheological findings could provide invaluable information regarding their applicability in formulations, designing and predicting flow behavior in different unit operations mixing, transportation, filling and pasteurization and even oral food processing.
The aqueous and oil phases were initially pre-homogenized with a rotor-stator Wise Tis, Daihan Scientific Co. Under sonication conditions, the surfactant-to-oil ratio SOR was also optimized. Strain sweep test 0. Then, a frequency sweep 0. As is evident Fig.
The b and a values for saponin 0. Such significant differences among emulsifiers indicate that at lower emulsifier concentration, smaller droplets could be produced using saponin rather than two other emulsifiers.
As it can be seen Fig. SMP is a bio-based, non-ionic, low molecular weight, and poor water solubility emulsifier which has already shown great capability in nanoemulsification of lime peel essential oils. As discussed, saponin, likely owing to its unique physicochemical properties, was more appropriate than other three emulsifiers for the production of nanoemulsions. These numbers suggest that the surface load of saponin is approximately 7 times smaller than WPI and lecithin.
Consequently, less saponin is required to cover a given droplet surface area which is highly important from commercial view point as well as health perspective. Therefore, saponin was selected for further study on manufacturing stable concentrated nanoemulsions and nanogels.
The presence of creaming layer is an easy measure to evaluate the physical instability of the emulsions. During visual inspection, a distinct cream layer was observed on all samples though it disappeared upon a gentle mixing. At the presence of lower saponin contents 0. These findings are in a good agreement with droplet size measurement after one month storage Fig. Therefore, the non-adsorbed excess saponin formed micelles that eventually led to the development of the cream layer through depletion flocculation.
Similar effect has already been reported for canola oil and octadecane nanoemulsions which were stabilized by sodium caseinate and SDS, respectively. Consequently, the exposure to sonication was the only option which was required to be manipulated.
Even after long exposure to sonication 33 min , the resulting droplet size nm was still higher than one was reported Takegami et al. Considering the efficiency differences of natural emulsifiers, it can be concluded that by selecting an appropriate emulsifier, surfactant to oil ratio SOR , and ultrasonication strategy one can formulate a long or medium chain triglyceride nanoemulsion using reasonably reduced quantity of emulsifier, and shorter exposure to sonication without using any co-surfactant.
The droplet size distribution of the aged one month old nanoemulsions is shown in Fig. With an exception of nanoemulsions which were sonicated for 3, 6 and 9 min, the droplet size distributions were monomodal and the peak was slightly shifted to the left when the sonication time was upturned.
In general, monomodal distribution indicates uniformity among droplet sizes and therefore physical stability. With regard to the mean droplet diameter, it can be seen Fig. However, some studies 25,41 reported direct relation between oil content and droplet size under constant sonication conditions.
Moreover, the findings of the present study clearly showed that the ultrasound technique alongside natural emulsifiers is highly capable of fabricating edible concentrated nanoemulsions. These results proved that saponin was able to stabilize concentrated nanoemulsions and nanogels under appropriate homogenization conditions.
It, as a natural emulsifier, belongs to glycosides and is structurally made of two parts; one is hydrophobic which is comprised of quillaic and gypsogenic acids, while its hydrophilic portion is consisted of sugars such as rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, fucose, and glucuronic acid.
Consequently, it can be easily adsorbed on the droplets during breakup by sonication to generate the partly negative charged interfacial coatings or even the protuberance of its hydrophilic parts into the aqueous phase to prevent the recoalescence of droplets through adequate electrostatic and steric repulsions.
This could be attributed to the p K a value 3. Resembling the flow behavior, the apparent viscosity versus shear rate curves of the nanoemulsions with different oil concentrations Fig. Such high dependency of flow behavior with the oil concentration volume fraction had been previously reported for nanoemulsions that were stabilized by synthetic and natural emulsifiers.
In addition, when the oil concentration was increased i. The low viscosity of the former one, despite its relatively high oil level, could have a potential importance in manufacturing oil-soluble drug loaded emulsions for instance for parenteral nutrition purposes, as it could facilitate its injectibility through narrow needles.
However, the first two cases flowed under gravity Fig. This was also reflected in dynamic rheological parameters Table 4. Indeed, the b -value indicates the extent of interaction or the number of rheological units entangled with one another in a three dimensional structure. The concentrated nanoemulsions stabilized by saponin, in the current study, revealed notably weaker rheological properties than those with SDS.
In addition, the apparent viscosity and dynamic rheological parameters of those with saponin was lower than one with SDS. It is already reported that owing to droplet size reduction and enhancement of the repulsive interactions the formation of the emulsifier layer at the droplet surface , the effective volume fraction and rheological properties could change.
Hence, there could be other factors than volume fraction and droplet size which likely affect the gelation threshold of nanoemulsions. It needs to be emphasized that the purity level of the tested saponin is not known and it is believed this could be a critical factor.
Therefore, it can be speculated that such difference can subsequently increase the shell thickness through extending electric potential into the surrounding aqueous phase. Therefore, by greater overlapping of the electrostatic shells surrounding the droplets, the effective volume fraction and eventually the shear modulus of the nanoemulsions increase. Apart from some dissimilarities, both surfactants at various SOR 0. In such a packed condition, each droplet is entrapped in a network of neighboring droplets.
Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms by which these two emulsifiers differently influence the rheological properties of the concentrated nanoemulsions are needed to be investigated. Similarly in the present study, the possible reason for different nanogelation capability of saponin and SDS could be attributed to the enhancement of the effective volume fraction and the abovementioned mechanisms.
It seems the nanogelation capability of saponin, which was utilized used in the present study, was higher than WPI, but lower than sodium caseinate. Received 24th June , Accepted 23rd August The inset magnifies the mean droplet diameter changes of nanoemulsions prepared by using saponin.
The dashed line shows phase separation borderline a and cream layer thickness b. For better distinction samples were illuminated. Newtonian K Pa s n 0.
We'll help you make the best possible foods available to the global consumer by making the best possible ingredients and know-how available to you. With the World Health Organisation calling on governments to eliminate trans-fatty acids from the world's food supply by , and several countries already following suit, it is time for the baking industry to investigate how to produce healthier cakes without the use of partly hydrogenated oils PHOs. Here's why powdered, activated emulsifiers will be the tool of choice for manufacturers of cake premixes and long shelf-life cakes. From the moment raw materials enter our premises until the final products leave our factories, we do our best to ensure that food safety and quality standards are adhered to.
EP0238330A2 - Modified emulsifiers, particularly for foods - Google Patents
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Emulsions: making oil and water mix
E-mail: sabbasifood modares. The fabrication of concentrated nanoemulsions provides potential advantages such as loading capacity enhancement, storage and transportation costs reduction, and creation of novel textures. The current study investigated the capability of high power ultrasound on nanoemulsification of high concentration triglyceride using various natural emulsifiers saponin, whey protein isolate, lecithin and sucrose monopalmitate. They also presented shear-thinning behavior with relatively low consistency coefficients. Owing to such characteristics, they could have potential applicability in formulation of soft foods, creams, sauces, salad dressings, pastes, lotions, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
Emulsifier is an organic compound that encompasses in the same molecule two dissimilar structural groups e. It is the ingredient which binds the water and oil in a cream or lotion together permanently. The composition, solubility properties, location and relative sizes of these dissimilar groups in relation to the overall molecular configuration determine the surface activity of a compound. Emulsifiers are classified on the basis of their hydrophilic or solubilizing groups in to four categories anionic, non ionic, cationics and amphoterics. An emulsion is an ideal formulation for the administration. The emulsion form allows uniform application of a small amount of active ingredient on the surface of the skin. Various cosmetics creams, such as moisturizers, contain emulsifiers. Lighter, less greasy feeling creams are oil in water emulsions; heavier creams used to treat rough skin are water in oil emulsions, with oil as the main ingredient. Liquid soaps, toothpastes and other body care products also contain emulsifiers.
Furfural residue: A valuable and recyclable emulsifier in green chemistry
Download the PDF version. Emulsions are used in a wide variety of industrial and pharmaceutical products including ocular, topical, mucosal, intravenous, intramuscular, and oral products. Even with their widespread use, they remain an underutilized drug product format. Emulsions also contain emulsifiers — materials that concentrate at the phase interface to lower the interfacial tension.
In this work, we describe a novel application of furfural residues in fabricating pH-responsive Pickering emulsions and its stable emulsion polymerization. Alkaline lignin extracted from furfural residue is soluble in basic water. However, in the acidic condition, lignin becomes insoluble and particles are formed, which could be used as an effective particular emulsifier for reversible styrene-in-water Pickering emulsions. The emulsions will break when the pH value of the aqueous phase increases. The emulsion system based on a small amount of lignin, 0. Lignin-coated polystyrene PS microparticles and pure PS microparticles have been fabricated using the emulsion template. Furthermore, this lignin emulsifier can be used circularly after polymerization. Finally, we propose a cheap and recyclable route for industrial emulsion polymerization. This work opens up new possibilities of agricultural residues as a valuable and recyclable emulsifier in green chemistry. Our site has moved to a new platform. It is functional, but expect the odd 'hiccup' e.
Enter our world of emulsifiers and stabilisers
Biomaterials Fabrication and Processing Handbook. Paul K. Chu , Xuanyong Liu. Focusing on a lucrative and increasingly important area of biomedicine, the Biomaterials Fabrication and Processing Handbook brings together various biomaterials production and processing aspects, including tissue engineering scaffold materials, drug delivery systems, nanobiomaterials, and biosensors. With contributions from renowned international experts and extensive reference lists in each chapter, the volume provides detailed, practical information to produce and use biomaterials.
Manufacture of Smoothies
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Chemically unstable lipophilic bioactives, such as polyunsaturated lipids, often have to be encapsulated in emulsion-based delivery systems before they can be incorporated into foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals.
These examples represent emulsions, which are stable mixtures of tiny droplets of one immiscible fluid within another, made possible by chemicals called emulsifiers. In both cases, emulsifiers are needed to prevent the suspended droplets from coalescing and breaking the emulsion.
Biopolymer Nanostructures for Food Encapsulation Purposes , a volume in the Nanoencapsulation in the Food Industry series, guides readers on how to fabricate and apply nanostructures from different proteins, carbohydrates and chemical sources for food encapsulation purposes. This book covers recent and applied research in all disciplines of bioactive and nutrient delivery. He has been working on nanoencapsulation of food bioactives for the past 15 years. In Nov.
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