The upstream part of the oil and gas business is comprised of production facilities. These facilities are where hydrocarbons are first recovered in the process. Pall filtration and separation solutions increase oil recovery rates, help maximize output and efficiently dispose of produced water. Transportation of produced fluids, gas processing, and LNG production is what comprises the midstream segment.
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Petroleum refining begins with the distillation, or fractionation, of crude oils into separate hydrocarbon groups. The resultant products are directly related to the characteristics of the crude oil being processed. Most of these products of distillation are further converted into more useable products by changing their physical and molecular structures through cracking, reforming and other conversion processes. These products are subsequently subjected to various treatment and separation processes, such as extraction, hydrotreating and sweetening, in order to produce finished products.
Whereas the simplest refineries are usually limited to atmospheric and vacuum distillation, integrated refineries incorporate fractionation, conversion, treatment and blending with lubricant, heavy fuels and asphalt manufacturing; they may also include petrochemical processing.
The first refinery, which opened in , produced kerosene by simple atmospheric distillation. Its by-products included tar and naphtha.
It was soon discovered that high-quality lubricating oils could be produced by distilling petroleum under vacuum. However, for the next 30 years, kerosene was the product consumers wanted most. The two most significant events which changed this situation were:. With the advent of mass production and the First World War, the number of gasoline-powered vehicles increased dramatically, and the demand for gasoline grew accordingly.
However, only a certain amount of gasoline could be obtained from crude oil through atmospheric and vacuum distillation processes. The first thermal cracking process was developed in Thermal cracking subjected heavy fuels to both pressure and intense heat, physically breaking their large molecules into smaller ones, producing additional gasoline and distillate fuels. A sophisticated form of thermal cracking, visbreaking, was developed in the late s to produce more desirable and valuable products.
As higher-compression gasoline engines were developed, there was a demand for higher-octane gasoline with better anti-knock characteristics. The introduction of catalytic cracking and poly- merization processes in the mid- to late s met this demand by providing improved gasoline yields and higher octane numbers.
Alkylation, another catalytic process, was developed in the early s to produce more high-octane aviation gasoline and petrochemical feedstocks, the starting materials, for explosives and synthetic rubber. Subsequently, catalytic isomerization was developed to convert hydrocarbons to produce increased quantities of alkylation feedstocks. Following the Second World War, various reforming processes were introduced which improved gasoline quality and yield, and produced higher-quality products.
Improved catalysts, and process methods such as hydrocracking and reforming, were developed throughout the s to increase gasoline yields and improve anti-knock characteristics. These catalytic processes also produced molecules with a double bond alkenes , forming the basis of the modern petrochemical industry. The numbers and types of different processes used in modern refineries depend primarily on the nature of the crude feedstock and finished product requirements. Processes are also affected by economic factors including crude costs, product values, availability of utilities and transportation.
The chronology of the introduction of various processes is given in table 1. Petroleum refining processes and operations can be classified into the following basic areas: separation, conversion, treatment, formulating and blending, auxiliary refining operations and refining non-process operations. See figure 1 for a simplified flow chart.
Since the beginning of refining, various treatment methods have been used to remove non-hydrocarbons, impurities and other constituents that adversely affect the performance properties of finished products or reduce the efficiency of the conversion processes.
Treatment involves both chemical reactions and physical separation, such as dissolving, absorption or precipitation, using a variety and combination of processes. Treatment methods include removing or separating aromatics and naphthenes, as well as removing impurities and undesirable contaminants. Sweetening compounds and acids are used to desulphurize crude oil before processing, and to treat products during and after processing.
Other treatment methods include crude desalting, chemical sweetening, acid treating, clay contacting, hydrodesulphurizing, solvent refining, caustic washing, hydrotreating, drying, solvent extraction and solvent dewaxing. Formulating and blending is the process of mixing and combining hydrocarbon fractions, additives and other components to produce finished products with specific desired performance properties.
Auxiliary refining operations. Other refinery operations which are required to support hydrocarbon processing include light ends recovery; sour water stripping; solid waste, waste water and process water treatment and cooling; hydrogen production; sulphur recovery; and acid and tail gas treatment.
Other process functions are providing catalysts, reagents, steam, air, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and fuel gases. Refinery non-process facilities.
All refineries have a multitude of facilities, functions, equipment and systems which support the hydrocarbon process operations. Typical support operations are heat and power generation; product movement; tank storage; shipping and handling; flares and relief systems; furnaces and heaters; alarms and sensors; and sampling, testing and inspecting.
Non-process facilities and systems include firefighting, water and protection systems, noise and pollution controls, laboratories, control rooms, warehouses, maintenance and administrative facilities. Petroleum refining has evolved continuously in response to changing consumer demand for better and different products.
The original process requirement was to produce kerosene as a cheaper and better source of fuel for lighting than whale oil. The development of the internal combustion engine led to the production of benzene, gasoline and diesel fuels. The evolution of the airplane created a need for high-octane aviation gasoline and jet fuel, which is a sophisticated form of the original refinery product, kerosene.
Present-day refineries produce a variety of products, including many which are used as feedstocks for cracking processes and lubricant manufacturing, and for the petrochemical industry. These products can be broadly classified as fuels, petrochemical feedstocks, solvents, process oils, lubricants and special products such as wax, asphalt and coke. See table 2.
Cooking and industrial gas Motor fuel gas Illuminating gas Ammonia Synthetic fertilizer Alcohols Solvents and acetone Plasticizers Resins and fibres for plastics and textiles Paints and varnish.
Olefins Solvents and diluents Extraction solvents Chemical industry feedstocks. Aviation and motor gasoline Dry-cleaning solvents. Military jet fuel Jet fuel and kerosene Tractor fuel. Cracking stock Heating oil and diesel fuel Metallurgical fuel Absorber oil—benzene and gasoline recovery.
Textile oils Medicinal oils and cosmetics White oil—food industry. Transformer and spindle oils Motor and engine oils Machine and compressor oils Turbine and hydraulic oils Transmission oils Equipment and cable insulation oils Axle, gear and steam engine oils Metal treating, cutting and grinding oils Quenching and rust inhibitor oils Heat transfer oils Lubricating greases and compounds Printing ink oils.
Rubber industry Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics Food and paper industries Candles and matches. Petroleum jelly Cosmetics Rust inhibitors and lubricants Cable coating compounds. Paving asphalt Roofing materials Asphaltic lubricants Insulating and foundation protection Waterproof paper products.
A number of chemicals are used in, or formed as a result of, hydrocarbon processing. A brief description of those which are specific and pertinent to refining follows:. Flue gas from burning high-sulphur-content fuels usually contains high levels of sulphur dioxide, which usually is removed by water scrubbing.
Caustics are added to desalting water to neutralize acids and reduce corrosion. Caustics are also added to desalted crude in order to reduce the amount of corrosive chlorides in the tower overheads. They are used in refinery treating processes to remove contaminants from hydrocarbon streams. Flue gas contains up to ppm of nitric oxide, which reacts slowly with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. Nitric oxide is not removed by water scrubbing, and nitrogen dioxide can dissolve in water to form nitrous and nitric acid.
Flue gas normally contains only a slight amount of carbon monoxide, unless combustion is abnormal. Hydrogen sulphide is found naturally in most crude oils and is also formed during processing by the decomposition of unstable sulphur compounds.
Hydrogen sulphide is an extremely toxic, colourless, flammable gas which is heavier than air and soluble in water. It has a rotten egg odour which is discernible at concentrations well below its very low exposure limit. This smell cannot be relied upon to provide adequate warning as the senses are almost immediately desensitized upon exposure.
Special detectors are required to alert workers to the presence of hydrogen sulphide, and proper respiratory protection should be used in the presence of the gas. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulphide will cause irritation, dizziness and headaches, while exposure to levels in excess of the prescribed limits will cause nervous system depression and eventually death.
Sour water is process water which contains hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, phenols, hydrocarbons and low-molecular-weight sulphur compounds. Sour water is produced by steam stripping hydrocarbon fractions during distillation, regenerating catalyst, or steam stripping hydrogen sulphide during hydrotreating and hydrofinishing. Sour water is also generated by the addition of water to processes to absorb hydrogen sulphide and ammonia.
Sulphuric acid and hydrofluoric acid are used as catalysts in alkylation processes. Sulphuric acid is also used in some of the treatment processes.
A number of different solid catalysts in many forms and shapes, from pellets to granular beads to dusts, made of various materials and having various compositions, are used in refining processes. Extruded pellet catalysts are used in moving and fixed bed units, while fluid bed processes use fine, spherical particulate catalysts.
Catalysts used in processes which remove sulphur are impregnated with cobalt, nickel or molybdenum. Cracking units use acid-function catalysts, such as natural clay, silica alumina and synthetic zeolites. Acid-function catalysts impregnated with platinum or other noble metals are used in isomerization and reforming.
Used catalysts require special handling and protection from exposures, as they may contain metals, aromatic oils, carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds or other hazardous materials, and may also be pyrophoric. The principal fuel products are liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel fuel and heating oil and residual fuel oils.
Liquefied petroleum gas LPG , which consists of mixtures of paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons such as propane and butane, is produced for use as a fuel, and is stored and handled as liquids under pressure.
The important qualities from an occupational health and safety perspective of LPGs are vapour pressure and control of contaminants. The most important refinery product is motor gasoline, a blend of relatively low-boiling hydrocarbon fractions, including reformate, alkylate, aliphatic naphtha light straight-run naphtha , aromatic naphtha thermal and catalytic cracked naphtha and additives. The critical qualities for gasoline are octane number anti-knock , volatility starting and vapour lock and vapour pressure environmental control.
Additives are used to enhance gasoline performance and provide protection against oxidation and rust formation. Aviation gasoline is a high-octane product, specially blended to perform well at high altitudes.
Tetra ethyl lead TEL and tetra methyl lead TML are gasoline additives which improve octane ratings and anti-knock performance. In an effort to reduce lead in automotive exhaust emissions, these additives are no longer in common use, except in aviation gasoline. Jet fuel and kerosene. Jet fuel is a middle distillate kerosene product whose critical qualities are freezepoint, flashpoint and smokepoint. Distillate fuels. Diesel fuels and domestic heating oils are light-coloured mixtures of paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics, and may contain moderate quantities of olefins.
Distillate fuels are combustible and when heated may emit vapours which can form ignitable mixtures with air. The desirable qualities required for distillate fuels include controlled flash- and pourpoints, clean burning, no deposit formation in storage tanks, and a proper diesel fuel cetane rating for good starting and combustion.
Knowledge is Safety! Working hard and striking for oil is what over , workers do every day in the Oil and Gas industry. Unfortunately, though, working hard often times means dangerous work. Hands often take a beating on an Oil Rig, from banged up knuckles to hazardous chemicals. With there being no shortages of hazards faced, workers rely on high-performance PPE. MCR Safety ensures Oil and Gas workers arrive home all in one piece with its industry leading gloves, glasses and garments.
Petroleum refining begins with the distillation, or fractionation, of crude oils into separate hydrocarbon groups. The resultant products are directly related to the characteristics of the crude oil being processed. Most of these products of distillation are further converted into more useable products by changing their physical and molecular structures through cracking, reforming and other conversion processes. These products are subsequently subjected to various treatment and separation processes, such as extraction, hydrotreating and sweetening, in order to produce finished products. Whereas the simplest refineries are usually limited to atmospheric and vacuum distillation, integrated refineries incorporate fractionation, conversion, treatment and blending with lubricant, heavy fuels and asphalt manufacturing; they may also include petrochemical processing.
List of Oil and Gas Plant and Equipment Companies in India
We supply machinery, equipment, spare parts, chemical products and catalysts for oil refining, petrochemical products, waste treatment, and other plants. Asahi Kasei Corp. Maruzen Petrochemical Co. Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. Showa Denko K. Tosoh Corporation Ube Industries, Ltd. Chiyoda Corporation Chiyoda Kosho. Cosmo Engineering Co. Ebara Environmental Plant Co.
Chemical Oil & Gas industry
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The petroleum, oil and gas, industry is the largest industry in today's world. It includes upstream, exploration and exploitation, and downstream, oil and gas refineries, petroleum product based activities, petrochemicals and related industries as well as shipping and pipe lines. In PEDC, these are individually and separately approached. The scope includes subsurface studies, drilling, trunk lines, design, construction and installation of surface facilities, production and field maintenance activities. PetroKariz Company has also been incorporated for Directional Drilling services and has rendered some of its services form early and continues to expand. PEDC has finalized a contract for purchasing two drilling jack up rigs specially designed for operating in the Persian Gulf. The first Jack up rig was delivered in early and became operational in South Pars gas field. The Second jack up rig will be delivered in first half of the year and will be employed in oil and gas development projects. PEDC has several projects an locations under study to take part in the local an international market.
Oil & Gas Filtration and Separation Solutions
Brady is a global business partner you can rely on for safety and identification products, services and support. Get the guide. Whether you are a part of a chemical processing facility, petroleum refinery, drilling rig or tank terminal, it is vitally important to maintain a safe, compliant and visually instructive work environment. We help you drive and sustain process safety and operational excellence initiatives, so you can competitively produce high-quality products in a safe and environmentally sound manner. As a full solution provider, we have everything you need for visual equipment reliability, hazard communication Right to Know and GHS , electrical safety, slip, trip and fall prevention, and other important safety issues. Field operators in the physical plant often face a labyrinth of pipes and instruments relying solely on past training and experience to know where they need to be. To easily navigate the ever evolving COG physical plant, Brady offers durable signage solutions for a more efficient turnaround.
Petrochemical Industry In Usa
Crude oil and other liquids produced from fossil fuels are refined into petroleum products that people use for many different purposes. Biofuels , such as ethanol and biodiesel, are also used as petroleum products, mainly in mixtures with gasoline and diesel fuel. Petroleum is the largest U. We use petroleum products to propel vehicles, to heat buildings, and to produce electricity. In the industrial sector, the petrochemical industry uses petroleum as a raw material a feedstock to make products such as plastics, polyurethane, solvents, and hundreds of other intermediate and end-user goods. In , U. The transportation sector accounts for the largest share of U.
Petrochemicals & Refineries
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In petrochemical plants and refineries, high pressure, high temperatures, and hazardous liquids and gases place extreme demands on installations. Only the very best seals, valves, instrumentation and hoses are good enough. We are right at home in midstream transport and storage and downstream refinery activities.
Our founder, James MacLean III, was a wireline engineer and experienced firsthand the pain of not knowing where important field equipment was located. The oil and gas industry uses many acronyms and abbreviations. Prior to the industrial age, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was less than ppm parts per million. This data release contains the boundaries of assessment units and input data for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Eagle Ford group and Associated Cenomanian-Turonian Strata, Texas Gulf Coast.