The production process involves fermentation of the natural material from the plant. This is followed by distillation to obtain a purer product. The final product consists almost entirely of methyl salicylate, the active ingredient of wintergreen oil. The natural production of wintergreen oil has been on the decline in favor of creating synthetic methyl salicylate.
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Essential Oil ProductionVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Its Made Lavender Essential Oil
Essential oils, called volatile oils or ethereal oils, are natural metabolic secretions of plants, the role of which is not yet fully understood by science. Some specialists consider them to be true plant hormones, fluid manifestations of the immune system of plants, in the sense that they contribute to the removal of pests, attracting, instead, pollinating agents, which are some insects and birds. Small, light—colored spherical structures, is, in fact, modified filaments, which behave like some secretory glands of essential volatile oils.
They are the ones who give the fragrance of the aromatic plant and have, in the case of salvation, medicinal curative properties, such as fever reduction, blood cleansing, and relieving pain. Essential oils are products isolated from plants or organs through a physical process that have a certain volatility higher or lower and possesses an agreeable odour characteristic of the source from which they originate.
They are also known as volatile or essential oils and their name are usually given by the popular name of the plant from which they are extracted. The most important characteristic of these mixtures, which also gives the special economic value, is the specific smell. This is the basis for their use in perfumery, cosmetics and the food industry. Many essential oils have special therapeutic qualities, some of which have been known and used since antiquity. Competing interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Oils are extracted from the leaves, petals, stems, seeds, and even the roots of the plants. Aromatic plants generally contain volatile oil in all their proportions in different concentrations.
The rose, for example, predominantly secretes etheric oil at the level of flowers, while ginger produces more aromatic oil in the rhizome. Each the volatile oil is unique, being different even within the same plant, and has wonderful applications and as varied as Nature itself.
The complex combination of organic substances that form a volatile oil gives its specific note, which depends on the species, the harvest period, the climate, as well as the part of the plant from which it is extracted. Numerous compounds that make up essential oils have been identified. Only the mint oil has no more than different components. Many the compounds are structural isomers 1. Among these active principles of plants, substances such as cineol, fenchone, limonene, menthol, mentone, pinene, sabinen are found, some of which are present in infinitesimal quantities, making it virtually impossible to reproduce synthetically the laboratory composition of herbal aromatic oils 2.
Nature is undoubtedly the greatest chemist, for the aromatic essences of plants in the entire known flora could not be synthesized in the thousands of years of joint efforts of all chemists in the world. Essential oils are aromatic substances present in the specialized cells or glands of certain plants used by them to protect themselves from predators and pests, but also to attract polinators. In other words, essential oils are part of the immune system of the plant. The famous alchemist, physician, physicist, astrologer, theologian and philosopher of Switzerland, Paracelsus, called distilled oils from herbs—quinta essentia—the quintessence of the plant, and hence the name of essential oils 2.
Essential oils are highly concentrated volatile substances extracted from various parts of certain plant species, each with specific therapeutical and energetic effects. These volatile liquids are very complex molecular substances, extremely potent and precise as action.
Essential oil is not actually an oil because it contains no fatty substance. It is obtained from the essence rich in natural flavors and active ingredients that it secretes the cells of certain parts of the plant. Precious liquids are obtained by distilling or pressing the secretory organs. For example, citrus peel is cold pressed, and the other parts of the plant stem, leaves, flowers, root, wood are distilled 3 , 4.
These processes result in an aromatic concentrate and a genuine source of active substances. Essential oil is also known as volatile oil or ethereal oil 5. Extraction of essential oils is expensive because of the large amount of raw material required to produce a few milliliters of oil.
This explains the high prices required for genuine essential oils. For example, to obtain a single drop of essential rose oil, approx. However, there are also less expensive oils due to the abundance of inexpensive raw materials and high productivity.
Such oils are citrus—lemon, orange, bergamot, lime, lemongrass oil, tea tree oil. Essential oils are relatively widespread in the plant kingdom, some families being very rich in such substances, both in number and quantity. Typically, essential oils are found in superior plants about 50 families belonging to orders of angiosperms Asterales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Zimgiberales, etc. Although terpenic compounds are characteristic of the plant kingdom, some biosynthesized monoterpenes have been reported from soil bacteria, insects probably pheromones , and some sesquiterpene and diterpenes of animal origin 10 , 11 , The synthesis and accumulation of essential oils occur either outside the plant, in the glandular brushes Asteraceae, Geraniaceae, Laminaceae, etc.
Essential oils can accumulate in all plant organs, but in varying amounts. Thus we can meet them in: roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, wood of the stems or in the bark. The name of aromatic plants is attributed to those species which contain a higher amount of volatile oil at least 0. In addition, there are other species that, although characteristically smell, still contain therapeutic substances that are comprised of essential oils.
The biosynthesis of odorous substances takes place in the leaves, where most of them are found and remains until flowering. Flowering, essential oils migrate into flowers, and part is consumed in the fertilization process. After fertilization, it accumulates in fruits and seeds or there is a migration to leaves, bark and root 16 , During the maturation of plants, the composition of essential oils changes: in young plants they contain mainly terpenic hydrocarbons and simpler molecules, while the reproductive organs contain etheric oils richer in oxygenated compounds.
Although their role in the plant organism is partly known, ethereal oils have multiple uses. There are more than 3, essential oils that are physically and chemically characterized, about of which are manufactured on an industrial scale 18 , 19 , Essential oils are complex mixtures — chemical constituents in which mono— and sesquitrpene constituents predominate, but also contain aromatic compounds, often phenylpropane derivatives, and rarely meet diterpenes.
The terpenic compounds may be hydrocarbons or oxygenated derivatives oxides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids or reaction products thereof esters, ethers. Terpenic compounds are substances of vegetable origin that enter into the natural composition of molecular mixtures that lead to the formation of volatile essential, etheric oils. Obtaining aromatic waters and essential oils requires raw materials, plant products, quality. First of all, harvesting the plant material should be done with great care, so that it is not contaminated with other plant species.
Essential oils are widespread in the most varied organs of the plant, but are more commonly found in flowers and leaves 21 , The chemical composition of essential oils is very varied and the main components can be part of the aliphatic, aromatic and terpenic series.
Generally, essential oils contain ternary, rarely quaternary substances. Volatile products are made up of terpenes, aromatics, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, volatile acids, esters, etc. The plant material that is subject to hydrodynamics is not always processed after harvesting Generally, fresh plants lead to more pleasant odor solutions and greater therapeutic action; except cinnamon, lime flowers and lavender flowers that are used dry.
In the case of dry plants, the lower volatile urine is sometimes obtained as a result of morphological and chemical changes due to the action of air, heating, because of the accumulation of grams, possibly by alteration 24 , Also, the technological process of obtaining volatile oil intervenes decisively in its composition and its quality.
In the case of hydrodistillation, physical and chemical processes are produced which significantly alter the content of the plant material and, consequently, the volatile oil released. Vegetable products are brought to a convenient degree by crushing, cutting, grinding, which is chosen according to its nature and chemical composition 26 , 27 , Thus, the flowers and leaves fall down to pass through the sieve I, and bark and roots, dried fruits and seeds, through sieve II or III.
Fresh fruits are crushed to obtain a pulp that is subject to water vapor entrainment. The plant—solvent ratio ranges from 1: 1 to 1: 5. This proportion is dependent on the amount of volatile oil contained in the plant and its solubility The excess undiluted volatile oil is separated from the saturated aqueous solution. Essential oils are obtained, as appropriate, by one of the following processes by pressing process used especially for extracting lemon peel oil.
The industrial extraction of essential oils from various aromatic plants is carried out according to different methods according to their characteristic properties. In practice, the most common methods are:. It is the method commonly used to extract volatile oil from most aromatic plants.
In this case it is useful to have hot water vapor to remove and transport, in particular, very essential oils. Water vapours penetrate into the vegetative mass, subjected to distillation, destroy the coating of the olefins, volatilize the oil and then mix with it. The mixture of water vapor and oil vapor passes into the refrigerant condensing vessel , where it turns into a liquid that is nothing but water and volatile oil.
This mixture reaches the florentine vessel separation vessel where the separation takes place, namely, the volatile oil being easier to deposit in the start above the water Depending on how the raw material is placed in the boiler, the following types of distillation are known:.
The raw material is 1: 4. Distillation in water and water vapor: it is applied to essential oils where certain components dissolve in water, whereby the raw material is placed above the water. Heating water from the boiler for vapor transformation is done either with direct fire or with blind steam pipes.
The volatile oil will thus be extracted from the vapor being formed. Water vapor distillation: it is used in the extraction of most oils. The process consists in the passage of water vapor, obtained in special boilers at high temperatures and pressures, through vegetative mass placed in special baskets. Water vapor distillation is the most common method and applies in most countries producing essential oils It is one of the oldest known and used methods for producing essential oils.
The use of solvents is a cumbersome and expensive method and is therefore rarely applied. This method is based on the ability of essential oils to dissolve in various substances such as animal fats, vegetable oils, gasoline, petroleum ether, etc.
Extraction of essential oils is called extraction, and non—volatile solvents, such as fats, are called macerates. The extraction with solvents is particularly useful for the oil obtained from flowers and those species whose volatile oil degrades under the influence of high temperatures The method described above is applied to the processing of rose, lilac, acacia, shrubs, etc.
In the case of maceration, the raw material subjected to extraction is placed in the fat. The raw material, depending on its properties, will be maintained for 24—48 hours in the solvent. Dissolvent is used 6—15 times for the extraction of a volatile oil It changes after complete saturation.
In order to benefit from the therapeutic properties and ensure that the essential oil contains valuable active principles for health and beauty, it is important to choose purely pure oil, distilled with no additives and dangerous solvents, preferably an organic certificate Given that there are a lot of so—called essential oils on the market, it is difficult to make the right choice without prior the documentation 7.
Here are some key things to keep in mind when buying the essential oil.
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Herbal Extraction and Food Products
Distillation & Extraction of Jasmine Oil
Across the Mediterranean region aromatic plant species growing naturally. These species are producing essential oils and comprise an important economical indicator for the population. All aromatic plants emit volatile substances into the environment either during their life or during the decomposition process. These volatile constituents affect the top soil microflora and form specific environmental conditions for the recycle process. The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil degradation and the release rate of the main compounds of the oil of Laurus nobilis during decomposition process. Key words: Laurus nobilis, Essential oil degradation, Mediterranean region, Decomposition process. One of the major plant categories growing in the Mediterranean region is that of aromatic plants which contain essential oils.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Essential oil manufacturing, production, distilling - Silvestris
Essential oils can be produced in a number of different ways:. Steam Distillation Most essential oils are produced by steam distillation see picture montage on this page of Nana Mint production in Morocco. Steam distillation should ideally be by low or medium pressure without the use of chemical solvents. Unfortunately, the distiller or producer is often more concerned with profit than with the correct treatment of the plants. High steam pressure and quick distillation are more cost-effective, but rarely create a fine and precious product. This is why organic farmers distill their plants very carefully with the slower method of low pressure steam distillation when they create organic essential oils. Many plants require a longer time to distill in order to extract the entire spectrum from head to tail of active substances particularly the slow boiling sesquiterpenes in the essential oil. These slow low pressure methods yield a richer, therapeutically more effective essential oil.
The use of nano-emulsions has great advantages over conventional macro-emulsions since the small droplet size allows to expand the options of applications besides presenting a greater surface area. This chapter focuses on the formulation of nano-emulsions of citrus essential oils in water, stabilized with a natural gum mesquite gum , using a high pressure microfluidic homogenizer to obtain appropriate physicochemical characteristics and kinetic stability. When establishing the general conditions of the methods for obtaining nano-emulsions by high pressure homogenization, several formulations presented stability and size corresponding to nano-emulsions, and these were monitored during 4 months in order to study their stability as a function of time. Taking into account the results of size and stability, the best nano-emulsion obtained had a composition of Persian lemon oil 9.
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. This is not always possible with other extraction methods. Using an apolar poly dimethylsiloxane PDMS phase, numerous terpenoid hydrocarbons, together with alcohols, cyclic ethers, and esters, were extracted.
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Automatic Essential Oils Extraction, for essential oil
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Essential oils (Practical Action Brief)
Essential oil , highly volatile substance isolated by a physical process from an odoriferous plant of a single botanical species. The oil bears the name of the plant from which it is derived; for example, rose oil or peppermint oil. Such oils were called essential because they were thought to represent the very essence of odour and flavour. Distillation is the most common method for isolation of essential oils, but other processes—including enfleurage extraction by using fat , maceration, solvent extraction, and mechanical pressing—are used for certain products.
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Essential oils are steam volatile oils distilled from plant materials and represent the typical flavour and aroma of a particular plant. They are found in flowers, leaves, roots, seeds and barks and find use principally in perfumery and flavourings. They are thus low-volume, very high value products.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile easily evaporated at normal temperatures chemical compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils , ethereal oils , aetherolea , or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove.