From the days of the Industrial Revolution to the newly minted 21st century, the construction of a manufacturing facility has been through its share of changes. Building standards, materials, and equipment have been introduced and improved over years of industrialization and automation. A wide variety of items have been produced from these facilities with new products created every day. But at its heart, a modern manufacturing facility has many of the same considerations as one from the early s. Each building was located and designed for a relatively specific purpose: to provide space for mass fabrication or assembly by machines and people. Where should you build your new plant?
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- How to build a Manufacturing Facility?
- Konstantin Stepanovich Melnikov
- Interiors of the most avant-garde houses of Moscow
- Life’s a birch: the best of contemporary wooden architecture in Russia and Ukraine
- Konstantin Stepanovich Melnikov
- Ceremonial Indian TOBACCO 1000+ seeds NICOTIANA RUSTICA Mapacho Aztec Makhorka
How to build a Manufacturing Facility?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Manufacturing facility overview
A number of historians have noted this fact. Not only that, however. Its perambulatory effect, experienced chiefly through the mechanism of the open staircase, was similarly unprecedented. El Lissitzky, writing several years after the Paris Expo , reasoned along similar lines. Lissitzky wrote:.
The close proximity of the Soviet Pavilion to other creations of international architecture revealed in the most glaring way the fundamentally different attitudes and concepts embodied in Soviet architecture. In this case, the basic concept represents an attempt to loosen up the overall volume by exposing the staircase.
Hence, the whole has been transposed from ordinary symmetry at rest into symmetry in motion. The tower element has been transformed into an open system of pylons. The structure is built honestly of wood, but instead of relying on traditional Russian log construction [it] employs modern wood construction methods. The whole is transparent. Unbroken colors. Therefore no false monumentality.
A new spirit. Tafuri and Dal Co. Upon arriving in Paris, and completing the startling structure, the Soviet architect found himself a minor celebrity on the scene. In the summer of , then, a major newspaper sat down to interview the emerging designer. Interviewer: Please tell us about your pavilion in greater detail. My starting point was real life; I had to deal with real circumstances.
Above all, I worked with the site that was allocated to me, a site surrounded by trees: it was necessary that my little building should stand out clearly amidst the shapeless masses through its color, height, and skillful combination of forms.
I wanted the pavilion to be as full of light and air as possible. That is my personal predilection, but I think it reasonably represents the aspiration of our whole nation. Not everyone who walks past the pavilion will go inside it. As far as the intersecting diagonal planes over the route are concerned, may they be a disappointment to lovers of roofs corked up like bottles! But this roof is no worse than any other: it is made so as to let in the air, and you keep out of the rain from whatever direction it may fall.
But why should a building whose function is temporary be granted the false attributes of the everlasting? To put it briefly, the clarity of color, simplicity of line, and abundance of light and air that characterize this pavilion whose unusual features you may like or dislike according to taste have a similarity to the country I come from. But do not think, for goodness sake, that I set out to build a symbol. For international modernists attending the Expo, the building was an indication that the Soviet Union might be leading the way toward establishing the new aesthetic of the machine age.
This was certainly true in the case of Theo van Doesburg, who was otherwise bitterly disappointed by the Paris Expo. In this sense, it built upon the prior expectations built up from the exhibition in Berlin.
Pingback: Constructivism on Display, Part Two. Fairgrounds at the Paris Expo, Photo by Aleksandr Rodchenko. The central podium features a model of I. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply.
Using archival records of the Commissariat of Public Health, journals, and propaganda materials from the antismoking campaign of the Soviet s, this article argues that the revolutionary state pursued an antitobacco policy unique in the world in its attack on tobacco use at a national scale. The commissar of public health, Nikolai Alexandrovich Semashko, attempted to severely curtail tobacco cultivation and production, limit tobacco sales, and create a public opinion against tobacco with a propaganda campaign. Even in failing in its farther-reaching goals, the policy proved one of the most forward in terms of antismoking propaganda and state-sponsored treatment regimens, with the distribution of antismoking posters, pamphlets, articles, plays, and films as well as the creation of special state-sponsored smoking-cessation programs that boasted high success rates. After the February Revolution of , which installed the Provisional Government upon the still-smoldering rubble of the Romanov autocracy, the exiled Bolshevik Vladimir Iliich Lenin began a trek across war-torn Europe to join his voice to those calling for change. Ushered along his way by the German government, who saw no downside in ridding their own territories of radicals while stocking up the Russian state with even more, Lenin steamed through hostile territories, sealed off in a special train car with artificially constructed borders of chalk lines manned by German guards.
Konstantin Stepanovich Melnikov
April 25 marked the centennial of the Bauhaus. The design school Walter Gropius founded in Weimar in went on to change how we think about what a modern building should look like inside and out and, more importantly, what principles should guide its construction. He also wrote about how designers from abroad helped modern architecture blossom under the early Bloshevik regime before those same designers faced political ruin in the Stalinist s. The age of modern architecture in the Soviet Union was ultimately very short — six or seven years long at most. Constructivism, as modern architecture of that era was known in the USSR and is still known in Russia to this day, had disappeared from social consciousness as early as the s, and the monuments to it that remained standing were received by the next generation of city dwellers as the strange spawn of a lost civilization, something like the statues on Easter Island.
Interiors of the most avant-garde houses of Moscow
His architectural work, compressed into a single decade — , placed Melnikov on the front end of s avant-garde architecture. Although associated with the Constructivists, Melnikov was an independent artist, not bound by the rules of a particular style or artistic group. In s, Melnikov refused to conform with the rising Stalinist architecture, withdrew from practice and worked as a portrait painter and teacher until the end of his life. Konstantin Melnikov was born and died in Moscow.
Wood was abandoned as an architectural material at the beginning of the Soviet era, despite the fact that there was no better alternative at the time. Suddenly there was no longer any room for the wooden izba , the traditional log house and symbol of private life, which the Soviet authorities opposed. Curiously enough, early Soviet architects such Konstantin Melnikov were fond of using wood. Indeed, all the pavilions at the show, aside from the Hexagon pavilion, were made of wood. Within a couple of years, however, the technology for reinforced concrete had developed considerably and a new era had begun. The rich tradition of Russian wooden architecture gradually regressed to the scale of modest dachas. In Russia, Ukraine, and the territories of the new east, wood only made a comeback to large-scale architecture at the start of the 21st century.
Life’s a birch: the best of contemporary wooden architecture in Russia and Ukraine
United States. Bureau of Manufactures. Russian Iron Ore and Iron Industries.
A number of historians have noted this fact. Not only that, however. Its perambulatory effect, experienced chiefly through the mechanism of the open staircase, was similarly unprecedented. El Lissitzky, writing several years after the Paris Expo , reasoned along similar lines. Lissitzky wrote:. The close proximity of the Soviet Pavilion to other creations of international architecture revealed in the most glaring way the fundamentally different attitudes and concepts embodied in Soviet architecture. In this case, the basic concept represents an attempt to loosen up the overall volume by exposing the staircase. Hence, the whole has been transposed from ordinary symmetry at rest into symmetry in motion.
Konstantin Stepanovich Melnikov
Frederick Starr, Garrido shows that he was also a perceptive observer and interpreter of the work of his contemporaries. In the weeks following the receipt of the invitation to participate, Anatolii Lunacharskii charged VOKS, the Society for Relations with Foreign Countries, and GAKhN, the State Academy of Artistic Sciences, with responsibility for orchestrating both the design and construction of a pavilion in Paris and assembling the objects to be displayed. The president of GAKhN, Petr Kogan, oversaw the general organization of the Soviet contribution to the fair and created an executive committee chaired by the painter David Shterenberg to coordinate the composition of the Soviet section. The scales were thus tipped in favour of an innovative architectural project for the Soviet pavilion from the very start. The following week, Melnikov departed for Paris to oversee the construction of the pavilion. In his account of the genesis of the project, Garrido is in dialogue both with Melnikov himself, who described his work on the project in , and S. Melnikov also met with Aleksandra Ekster and Boris Gladkov, both of whom were charged with assisting in the construction and design of the Soviet contribution to the exposition. Much of the most important work in the elaboration of the working drawings for the pavilion and Gostorg kiosks was undertaken by Les Charpentiers de Paris, the French design and construction cooperative. In his analysis of the relationship of the working drawings to the project Melnikov submitted to the exposition committee in early January, Garrido clarifies the course work on the project, which has confounded some historians. Through a close reading of the drawings, Garrido convincingly shows that Melnikov did not collaborate with Les Charpentiers de Paris in the elaboration of the final project, but rather charged Les Charpentiers de Paris with producing detailed drawings for a definitive solution.
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Она узнает, что такое мониторы, когда доберется до. -- Я не могу вам этого сказать, пока у вас не будет разрешения Совета. Меньше всего она могла ожидать вот такого, совершенно обескураживающего, оборота событий. В Диаспаре было совсем немного мест, которые не мог бы посетить всяк кому вздумается. Алистра была совершенно уверена, что у самого-то Олвина не имелось никакого разрешения от Совета, а это могло только означать, что ему помогает кто-то, кто стоит выше Совета. Совет руководил Диаспаром.
Но и сам Совет должен был повиноваться приказаниям еще более высокой инстанции -- почти безграничного интеллекта Центрального Компьютера. Трудно было не думать о Центральном Компьютере как о живом существе, локализованном в каком-то ограниченном пространстве, хотя на самом деле он представлял собой сумму всех машин Диаспара.
Олвин прервал его размышления, и Джизирак отвернулся от экрана. -- Мне хотелось, чтобы вы это увидели,-- тихо произнес Олвин. -- Другой возможности вам может не представиться. -- Разве ты покидаешь Землю.
Вода была полна крошечных зеленоватых крапинок, живых и подвижных, быстро исчезавших в просторах озера. Рябь на поверхности совсем утихла, и Элвин понял, что непрерывная пульсация, звучавшая в глубинах, теперь замерла.
Озеро снова было мертво - по крайней мере внешне. Но когда-нибудь неизвестные силы, столь безотказные в прошлом, снова проявят себя, и полип возродится.
Одновременно с возвращением сознания забрезжил утренний свет, и вскоре Элвина залило мягкое, холодное сияние зари, хлынувшее через прозрачные стены. Элвин лежал в сонной полудреме, припоминая вчерашние события и раздумывая, какие силы он теперь привел в движение. Одна из стен начала складываться с нежным музыкальным звуком, причем таким хитроумным способом, что проследить за этим процессом оказалось невозможным.
Он знал, что некогда небеса Земли были заполнены необычайными аппаратами. Огромные корабли, нагруженные неведомыми сокровищами, возвращались из космоса, чтобы пришвартоваться в легендарном Диаспарском Порту. Но Порт находился за пределами города; целые эпохи прошли с тех пор, как он был погребен под наползавшими песками.