Handbook of Adhesion Technology pp Cite as. There is a pervading presence of adhesive joints in nature. Adhesive secretions are used by organisms for attachment, construction, obstruction, defense, and predation. Most natural materials are hybrid materials combining organic and inorganic building blocks. Bioadhesives are able to build durable interfaces between hard and soft materials, often of disparate scales, and exhibit a certain number of characteristics that make them differ greatly from synthetic adhesives. The title of this chapter Bioadhesives includes a broad variety of different concepts: natural adhesives, biological adhesives, biocompatible adhesives, and biomimetic and bioinspired adhesives.
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The business of the chemical industry is to change the chemical structure of natural materials in order to derive products of value to other industries or in daily life. Chemicals are produced from these raw materials-principally minerals, metals and hydrocarbons-in a series of processing steps. Further treatment, such as mixing and blending, is often required to convert them into end-products e. Chemicals fall into two main classes: organic and inorganic. Organic chemicals have a basic structure of carbon atoms, combined with hydrogen and other elements.
Inorganic chemicals are derived chiefly from mineral sources. Examples are sulphur, which is mined as such or extracted from ores, and chlorine, which is made from common salt. The products of the chemical industry can be broadly divided into three groups, which correspond to the principal steps in manufacture: base chemicals organic and inorganic are normally manufactured on a large scale and are normally converted to other chemicals; intermediates are derived from base chemicals.
Most intermediates require further processing in the chemical industry, but some, such as solvents, are used as they are; finished chemical products are made by further chemical processing.
Some of these drugs, cosmetics, soaps are consumed as such; others, such as fibres, plastics, dyes and pigments, are processed still further.
Division 35 is further subdivided into industrial chemicals , other chemicals , petroleum refineries , miscellaneous coal and petroleum products, e. In reporting chemical industry statistics each country normally uses its own classification system, and this can be misleading. Thus comparison between countries of total chemical industry performance cannot be based on national sources. The chemical industry has grown much more rapidly in the half century than industry as a whole.
The biggest area of growth of chemical production has been in Southeast Asia. Figure Much of the chemical industry is highly capital-intensive and is also strongly dependent on research and development e. The combined result of these two factors is that the industry employs an abnormally low number of unskilled manual workers for its size, in comparison with manufacturing industry in general.
Total employment in the industry rose slightly during the period of rapid growth prior to , but since then the drive for increased productivity has resulted in a decline in employment in the chemical industry in most developed countries. Table Process safety technology has played an important role in the chemical processing industries so that handling flammable and combustible liquids and gases could proceed without undesirable consequences.
During the s, the oil and gas industries, for example, recognized that process safety technology alone, without process safety management, would not prevent catastrophic incidents. The CCPS was formed in to promote the improvement of process safety management techniques among those who store, handle, process and use hazardous chemicals and materials.
One of the seven strategic elements of the STEP programme covers petroleum operating and process safety. The following documents are examples of some of the materials developed as a result of the STEP programme which provide guidance to the oil and gas industry to help prevent the occurrence or minimize the consequences of catastrophic releases of flammable liquids and vapours or hazardous process materials:.
RP covers the management of hydrocarbon process hazards in design, construction, start-up, operations, inspection, maintenance and facility modifications.
It applies specifically to refineries, petro-chemical plants and major processing facilities that use, produce, process or store flammable liquids and toxic processing chemicals in quantities above certain hazardous amounts as defined therein. RP , co-developed by API and CMA, is intended to help identify process plant buildings of concern, understand the potential hazards related to their location within the process facility and manage the risk of fire, explosion and toxic releases.
RP provides resource materials and self assessment methodology to measure progress in implementing process safety management elements. Examples of other organizations which have developed materials and programmes providing guidance covering chemical process safety management include, but are not limited to, the following:. Whenever there are processes that use temperature and pressure to change the molecular structure or create new products from chemicals, the possibility exists for fires, explosions or releases of flammable or toxic liquids, vapours, gases or process chemicals.
The control of these undesired events requires a special science called process safety management. The terms process safety and process safety management are most commonly used to describe the protection of employees, the public and the environment from the consequences of undesirable major incidents involving flammable liquids and highly hazardous materials.
The process design and technology, changes in the process, materials and changes in materials, operations and maintenance practices and procedures, training, emergency preparedness and other elements affecting the process must all be considered in the systematic identification and evaluation of hazards so as to determine whether or not they have the potential to lead to a catastrophe in the workplace and surrounding community.
Beginning in the early s, a number of serious major incidents occurred in the petroleum and chemical industries involving highly hazardous materials, which resulted in considerable numbers of fatalities and injuries and significant property losses.
These incidents provided the impetus for government agencies, labour organizations and industry associations throughout the world to develop and implement codes, regulations, procedures and safe work practices directed toward the elimination or mitigation of these undesirable events, through the application of the principles of process safety management. They are discussed more fully in the Disasters, natural and technological chapter and elsewhere in this Encyclopaedia.
In response to public concern over the potential hazards of chemicals, governments and regulatory agencies throughout the world initiated programmes which required manufacturers and users to identify hazardous materials in the workplace and inform employees and consumers of the hazards presented by their manufacture, use, storage and handling.
These programmes, which covered emergency preparedness and response, hazard recognition, product knowledge, control of hazardous chemicals and reporting of toxic releases, included hydrocarbon processing. Process safety management is an integral part of the overall chemical processing facility safety programme. An effective process safety management programme requires the leadership, support and involvement of top management, facility management, supervisors, employees, contractors and contractor employees.
Components to be considered when developing a process safety management programme include:. The process safety management programme relies upon providing availability and access to good records and documentation. Because process safety management is the basis for all safety efforts within the facility, managerial, supervisory and employee responsibility and accountability should be clearly delineated, communicated and understood in order for the programme to work. Prior to implementation, it is important to establish both long-term and short-term goals and objectives for each of the elements of the process safety management programme.
All chemical facility process safety management programmes cover the same basic requirements, although the number of programme elements may vary depending on the criteria used. Regardless which government, company or association source document is used as a guide, there are a number of basic requirements which should be included in every chemical process safety management programme:.
Process safety information is used by the process industry to define critical processes, materials and equipment. Process safety information includes all available written information concerning process technology, process equipment, raw materials and products and chemical hazards before conducting a process hazard analysis. Other critical process safety information is documentation relating to capital project reviews and design basis criteria.
Chemical information includes not only the chemical and physical properties, reactivity and corrosive data and thermal and chemical stability of chemicals such as hydrocarbons and highly hazardous materials in the process, but also the hazardous effects of inadvertently mixing different incompatible materials. Chemical information also includes that which may be needed to conduct environmental hazard assessments of toxic and flammable releases and permissible exposure limits.
The consequences of deviations in the process and materials, including their effect on employee safety and health, are also determined. Process equipment and mechanical design information includes documentation covering the design codes employed and whether or not equipment complies with recognized engineering practices.
A determination is made as to whether existing equipment which was designed and constructed in accordance with codes, standards and practices no longer in general use is maintained, operated, inspected and tested to assure continued safe operation.
Information on materials of construction, piping and instrument diagrams, relief system design, electrical classification, ventilation design and safety systems is updated and re-evaluated when changes occur.
Process safety management programmes should include employee participation in the development and conduct of process safety analyses and other elements of the programme. Access to process safety information, incident investigation reports and process hazard analyses is usually provided to all employees and contractor employees working in the area.
Most industrialized nations require that workers be systematically instructed in the identification, nature and safe-handling of all chemicals to which they may be exposed. After the process safety information is compiled, a thorough and systematic multi-disciplinary process hazard analysis, appropriate to the complexity of the process, is conducted in order to identify, evaluate and control the hazards of the process.
Persons performing the process hazard analysis should be knowledgeable and experienced in relevant chemistry, engineering and process operations. Each analysis team normally includes at least one person who is thoroughly familiar with the process being analysed and one person who is competent in the hazard analysis methodology being used. The priority order used to determine where within the facility to begin conducting process hazard analyses is based on the following criteria:.
A number of methods for conducting process safety analyses are used in the chemical industry. This method is useful when conducting pre-startup reviews upon completion of initial construction or following major turnarounds or additions to the process unit.
The hazard and operability HAZOP study method is commonly used in the chemical and petroleum industries. It involves a multi-disciplinary team, guided by an experienced leader. The failure mode and effects analysis method tabulates each process system or unit of equipment with its failure modes, the effect of each potential failure on the system or unit and how critical each failure could be to the integrity of the system.
The failure modes are then ranked in importance to determine which is most likely to cause a serious incident. No matter which method is used, all chemical process hazard analyses consider the following:. Chemical process facilities should develop and implement programmes which provide for the revision of process safety information, procedures and practices as changes occur. Such programmes include a system of management authorization and written documentation for changes to materials, chemicals, technology, equipment, procedures, personnel and facilities that affect each process.
Management of change programmes in the chemical industry, for example, include the following areas:. The management of change system includes informing employees involved in the process and maintenance and contractor personnel whose tasks would be affected by any changes of the changes and providing updated operating procedures, process safety information, safe work practices and training as needed, prior to the startup of the process or affected part of the process.
Chemical processing facilities must develop and provide operating instructions and detailed procedures to workers. Workers involved in the process have access to operating instructions covering the following areas:. Chemical process facilities should implement hot-work and safe work permit and work order programmes to control work conducted in or near process areas. Supervisors, employees and contractor personnel must be familiar with the requirements of the various permit programmes, including permit issuance and expiration and appropriate safety, materials handling and fire protection and prevention measures.
The types of work included in typical chemical facility permit programmes include the following:. Chemical facilities should develop and implement safe work practices to control potential hazards during process operations, covering the following areas of concern:.
Chemical process facilities should use formal process safety training programmes to train and educate incumbent, reassigned and new supervisors and workers.
The training provided for chemical process operating and maintenance supervisors and workers should cover the following areas:. Contractors are often employed in chemical processing facilities. The facilities must institute procedures to assure that contractor personnel performing maintenance, repair, turnaround, major renovation or specialty work are fully aware of the hazards, materials, processes, operating and safety procedures and equipment in the area.
Periodic evaluations of performance are made to assure that contractor personnel are trained, qualified, follow all safety rules and procedures and are informed and aware of the following:. Pre-startup process safety reviews are conducted in chemical plants prior to startup of new process facilities and introduction of new hazardous materials or chemicals into facilities, following a major turnaround and where facilities have had significant process modifications.
When new processes or major changes to existing processes are undertaken, a series of process safety design reviews are normally conducted before and during construction prior to the pre-startup review. Another review is normally conducted just prior to the start of construction covering the following:. One or more reviews are usually conducted during the course of construction or modification to assure the following areas are in accordance with design specifications and facility requirements:.
Process facilities have programmes to maintain ongoing integrity of process-related equipment, including periodic inspection, testing, performance maintenance, corrective action and quality assurance. The programmes are intended to assure that mechanical integrity of equipment and materials is reviewed and certified and deficiencies corrected prior to startup, or provisions made for appropriate safety measures.
Mechanical integrity programmes also cover inspection and testing of maintenance materials, spare parts and equipment to assure proper installation and adequacy for the process application involved. Emergency preparedness and response programmes are developed to cover an entire process facility and to provide for hazard identification and assessment of potential process hazards. These programmes include training and educating employees and contractor employees in emergency notification, response and evacuation procedures.
A typical process facility emergency preparedness programme complies with applicable company and regulatory requirements and includes the following:. Many process facilities use self-evaluation process safety management audits to measure facility performance and assure compliance with internal and external regulatory, company and industry process safety requirements.
A report of the audit findings and recommendations is developed and facility management maintains documentation which notes how deficiencies had been corrected or mitigated, and if not, reasons why no corrective action had been taken.
Compliance audit programmes in hydrocarbon process facilities cover the following areas:. Facility and process unit specific checklists are often developed for use when conducting process safety audits which cover the following items:.
United States Patent "ice US. This invention relates to an improved adhesive for bonding reinforcing cords to rubber and to a rubber article having a cord bonded therein by means of the adhesive and to the process of treating a reinforcing cord with the adhesive of this invention. In the manufacture of such reinforced rubber articles as pneumatic tires, power-drive belts, conveyor belts, highpressure hose and the like, the useful life of these articles depends to a great extent upon the bond secured between the reinforcing element or cord and the rubber. The chemistry and physical properties of the cord and the rubber being reinforced determines to a large extent the degree of adhesion and the life of the bond developed at the interface of these different materials. Where rubber is being reinforced with a cord, a sharp difference exists in the modulus of the materials used. For example, the modulus at break for the rubber may range from about p.
We have compiled a glossary of terminology about adhesives and coatings as a service to our customers and industry colleagues. Abrasion resistance - the ability of a coating to resist being worn away and to maintain its original appearance and structure when subjected to rubbing, scraping or wear. Acid number - the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acids of 1 gram of an oil resin, varnish or other substance — generally reported on the nonvolatile content. Additive - a substance added in small quantities to another substance, usually to improve specific properties. Adhere - to cause two surfaces to be held together by adhesion.
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Tiger Glue. You can make handsome tie-tacks, attractive keychains, earrings, a beautiful bracelet or eye-catching necklaces. Tiger Glue is one of our favorite products. This one-part permanent glue works for almost any surface including leather, metals, stone, tile, ceramics, wood, porcelain, and more. Shop and save on arts and crafts supplies online or at a store near you. Individual r olls are 1 inch wide by 5 feet long. Wonderglue is a pre-War brand of glue that has retained its adhesive qualities. Continued exposure to moisture, IE outdoors, will eventually dissolve Type I glue. Cut out the wall.
A guide to solvent-based adhesives
This application relies for priority upon Korean Patent Application No. The present invention generally relates to a method for manufacturing of an unvulcanized adhesive waterproof sheet and a construction method using the sheet. Particularly, the present invention relates to a method of manufacturing an unvulcanized adhesive waterproof sheet for waterproofing of a cut and cover tunnel, an underground building structure, or a concrete structure such as a building wall or an underground driveway. And, particularly, the present invention relates to a construction method using the sheet.
Rubber cement is an adhesive made from elastic polymers typically latex mixed in a solvent such as acetone , hexane , heptane or toluene to keep them fluid enough to be used. This makes it part of the class of drying adhesives : as the solvents quickly evaporate, the rubber solidifies, forming a strong yet flexible bond. Rubber cement is simply a mixture of solid rubber in a volatile solvent that will dissolve it. When the cement is applied, the solvent evaporates, leaving the rubber as the adhesive. Almost any rubber pre- vulcanized or not can be used. Early solvents used included chloroform and benzene. In the United States of America, current formulations include n-heptane. In the UK, a product called Marabu-Fixogum uses acetone.
Glossary of Terms
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Types Of Synthetic Rubber
The business of the chemical industry is to change the chemical structure of natural materials in order to derive products of value to other industries or in daily life. Chemicals are produced from these raw materials-principally minerals, metals and hydrocarbons-in a series of processing steps. Further treatment, such as mixing and blending, is often required to convert them into end-products e. Chemicals fall into two main classes: organic and inorganic. Organic chemicals have a basic structure of carbon atoms, combined with hydrogen and other elements. Inorganic chemicals are derived chiefly from mineral sources. Examples are sulphur, which is mined as such or extracted from ores, and chlorine, which is made from common salt. The products of the chemical industry can be broadly divided into three groups, which correspond to the principal steps in manufacture: base chemicals organic and inorganic are normally manufactured on a large scale and are normally converted to other chemicals; intermediates are derived from base chemicals. Most intermediates require further processing in the chemical industry, but some, such as solvents, are used as they are; finished chemical products are made by further chemical processing.
Usually ships within 5 days. Animal glues are essentially natural high-polymer proteins. These organic colloids are derived from collagen which is the.
We get the natural rubber from the latex of rubber tree Heveabrasiliensis. The downside of this caulk is that it is flammable until it cures completely and shrinks significantly after curing. The rubber so formed has all trans- Configuration. There are three types of classification under this category, namely, Natural, Synthetic, and Semi-synthetic Polymers.
Solvent-based adhesives are found in consumer glues, but are also used in industrial settings. You may be exposed to them if you work in printing, textiles, or any kind of manufacturing environment.
Synonyms: Adhesive worker; bonder; cementer; floor-layer and wall-coverer construction ind. Glues materials such as paper, cloth, leather, wood, metal, glass, rubber or plastic together, following specified procedures.