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Industry factory technological equipment for forestry

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Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines

The impacts of forest industries and wood utilization on the environment were considered. The effects of tree harvesting and logging operations on forest biodiversity, soil erosion, soil compaction and hydrological cycle are reported. Environmental pollution due to wood processing, wood utilization and waste management in forest industries was discussed. Methods of mitigating the detrimental effect of the operations of forest industries in Nigeria on the environment are suggested.

Forests have been the major source of livelihood for most Nigerian. The forestry sector is one of the main pivots on which the nation's welfare was built. The forest is not only important for material goods but also as a valuable ecological and cultural resource.

The forestry subsector has over the years contributed immensely to the socio-economic development in the country. It ranks among one of the highest revenue and employment generating sectors. It also serves as resource base for many forest industries. The raw materials for the production of timber, pulp and paper are derived from the forest.

The demand for wood raw material by these industries in recent times has outstripped the production capacity of the forest. Thus, exploitation of forest resources for industrial purposes if not well planned may be deleterious to the environment. It is therefore necessary to examine the impact of the activities of forest industries on the environment in order not to jeopardize the other goods, services and benefits of the forests. These benefits include: amelioration of weather pattern, provision of clean air, protection of biological diversity, protection of watershed, soil and food crops and provision of recreational facilities.

The objective of this paper is to review the impact of forest industries on the environment. For a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter the write-up has been sub - divided into five complimentary subtopics. Wood is the most versatile raw material the world has ever known.

Throughout history, people relied on wood for needs varying from farming tools to building materials, from fuel to weapons of hunting and warfare.

Wood remains virtually the most predominant material used for construction and energy generation until the last half of the 19 th century Douglas, People used timber in the construction of houses, barns, fences, bridges, furniture items and musical instruments. In contemporary times, wood is still widely used for constructional purposes. It is also a valuable industrial raw material for the production of pulp, paper, paperboard, rayon, cellophane, photographic film, tannin, methanol, ethanol, wood adhesives and chemical derivatives as shown in Figure 1.

The ubiquitous nature of wood has made it a valuable material in every stage of human development. At early age, the baby rests in wooden court, plays with wooden toys, and learns to write on wooden slate and paper when he is of school age. On graduating from school he receives a paper certificate. If he is lucky to secure employment his salary is paid in paper currency. When he is old he uses a wooden walking stick, sleeps on wooden bed and when dies the body is laid in wooden coffin.

The versatile nature of wood has endeared it to multiple forms of domestic and industrial uses. In this write up, attention would be on forest industries that use forest resources as the major raw materials. The forest enterprises in Nigeria can be classified into either formal or informal sector enterprises GWVC, The formal sector enterprises include the organized wood based industries such as sawmills, plywood mills, particleboard mills and furniture factories.

The informal enterprises are small forest based enterprises operating without formal corporate entity, this include enterprises that engage in the production of firewood, charcoal, chewing stick and sculptured wood items.

The formal enterprises constitute the forest industries in the country. The number of the wood based mills is presented in Table 1. There have been some changes in wood based industries in Nigeria between and The total number of wood based industries increased from in to in but decreased to in The reduction in the number of wood mills between and was attributed to deficit in supply of required wood raw material due to over exploitation of the forest for export market.

The projected wood requirement for major wood products in Nigeria is presented on Table 2. Although the highest quantity of wood is expected to be consumed as firewood in , the highest volume of industrial wood raw material would be required for production of sawnwood. The sawmills account for These mills are concentrated in the southwestern part of the country, with Ondo, Ogun and Lagos states having the largest numbers.

The main type of log conversion machine used in these mills is the CD horizontal band saw. The poor log conversion efficiency of the mills is partly responsible for the high pressure on the forest and the destruction of forest cover. There were ten plywood and veneer mills in Nigeria in Fuwape, The production capacities of the mills are presented in Table 3.

The annual wood requirements in plywood and veneer mils are approximately ,m 3. The peeling lathe machine in the plywood mills in Nigeria requires large diameter logs for effective operation. The harvesting and logging operation of these mills have adversely affected the forest ecosystem. The particleboard mills in Nigeria are integrated with some plywood mills and sawmills. Particleboards are mainly produced from wood residues and plantation tree. The wood requirements of the particleboard mills are not considered to be significantly detrimental to the environment GWV, The NPM Jebba was established in but was expanded in to produce 65,MT of Kraft paper, linerboards and corrugated paper per year.

However, the mills were functional for only very few years before they stopped production in Thus the impact of the mills on the environment in terms of tree harvesting is no longer very significant but the clearing of natural forest for the establishment of Gmelina arborea plantation must have disrupted the hydrological cycle of the plantation sites.

The indiscriminate logging in the rainforest and uncontrolled felling of trees for fuelwood are reported to have had adverse effect on the environment Fuwape and Onyekwelu , Oke and Fuwape, The adverse effect caused by the operations of forest industries include loss of biodiversity, migration of wildlife, ecological imbalance, soil erosion, flooding, desert encroachment and disruption in hydrological cycle of water catchment area. The tropical forest provide habitat for two-thirds of all identified terrestial species Myers These plant and animal species serve as source of food, medicine and fuel in most rural communities in developing countries.

Tree harvesting adversely affects the population and variety of plant and animal species in the forest. The removal of forest cover during logging has in some instances resulted in the scarcity or out-right extinction of many important plant and animal species.

Some wild animals have also been observed to migrate from areas where tree cover was removed to undisturbed vegetations. Some plant and animal genetic resources that could be used in producing new pharmaceuticals or traditional medicine are lost as a result of the destruction of forest cover.

Destruction of forest cover during tree harvesting results in the loss of the protection, which the plant cover gives to the soil Hamilton and Pearse, Timber harvesting also interrupts the normal nutrient cycle of the forest, promotes nitrification and increases nutrient leaching thereby leaving the topsoil impoverished and susceptible to erosion.

Myers reported that soil under primary forest erodes at an average rate of 12 tonnes per hectare while open vegetation in deforested areas of upland topography erode at the rate of about 84 tonnes per hectare per year.

There have been reports of accelerated erosion that resulted in extensive gullies in various deforested parts of Nigeria NEST, Eroded soil are often deposited in rivers and fish ponds thereby causing siltation and contamination of such water body. These adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem and disrupt biodivesity by killing fish and other organisms.

Unplanned logging operations have resulted in soil compaction Greacen and Sand , Froehlich and McNabb Soil compaction adversely affects tree growth, plant productivity and soil aeration Gupta and Allmaras, The movement of wheeled and tracked vehicles on forest soil has been reported to cause increase in bulk density and reduction in air-filled porosity of the soil Startsev et al Changes in forest cover alter catchment water balances and stream flows.

The effect of destruction of forest cover on catchment water balance and runoff dynamics depends on the climate, topography, soils and the type of forest Vertessy and Dye Water quality and yield are also affected by tree harvesting. Flooding seems to increase as result of broad - scale deforestation in catchment zones.

Indiscriminate tree felling in hilly areas reduces the ability of soil to absorb water thereby inducing high volume of run off. Oguntala and Oguntoyinbo attributed Ogunpa flood disaster that occurred in Ibadan in , to the destruction of forest along banks of river Ogunpa. The removal of forest cover during tree harvesting predisposes the environment to destructive actions of wind and rainstorm. Devastating destruction of farmland and houses have been reported in areas where indiscriminate tree felling had taken place Oke and Fuwape Clear felling of trees for firewood has been recognised as one of the factors responsible for environmental degradation in arid and semi-arid parts of Africa.

When trees in an area are removed the rate of evapotranspiration is disrupted this affects precipitation and makes the area become increasingly and thereby inducing desertification.

It was also reported that the indiscriminate felling of trees aggravated the effect of wind erosion and deposition of sand dunes in northern part of Nigeria thereby enhancing desertification Ezenwa , Gwandu The environmental pollution problems in forest industries include solid waste disposal, air emission of toxic and non-toxic particulates, veneer dryer emission and glue waste disposal.

Noise generated during the operation of machines also constitute serious source of health hazard to workers in the forest industry Harden, In converting round log to lumber, sawmills generated vast quantity of bark; sawdust, shavings and trimmings. The solid wood waste may be used in particleboard production while the bark may be used as fuel or in land filling. The problem of glue waste disposal can be resolved by retaining used water in settling tanks where solid sediments are removed.

Waste water from pulp and paper industries are also retained in treatment ponds for a period of time to ensure the decomposition of chemical residues before it is linked into the main river Haskell The dust and particulate emission during industrial wood processing can be collected in bag filter, cyclone collectors and wet scrubbers.

Providing personal protective equipment to workers can solve the problem of noise pollution. Noise abatement could also be carried out by installing noise damping enclosure around the machine Lamb, The most critical environmental impact of the activities of forest industries that require urgent attention is the destruction of forest cover. Over the years, much exploitation of the forest has been done in order to meet the increasing demand of the teeming population.

This has resulted in serious depletion of the resource base to the extent that some favoured timber species have become scarce while others have become scarce in certain ecological zones. Geomatics reported that the land area occupied by high forest in Nigeria decreased by 11, km 2 between and while the land area occupied by savannah decreased by 90, km 2 during the same period. This reduction in forest cover has negatively affected the environment and is partly responsible for soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrological cycle.

Adopting aggressive reforestation strategy could solve the problem of reduced forest cover. Technology that aids forest productivity and efficient utilization of forest resources on sustainable basis should also be employed during forest operations.

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Komatsu Equipment

They are intended to be living documents and are occasionally updated. The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are normally acceptable to the World Bank Group, and that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities at reasonable costs by existing technology. When host country regulations differ from the levels and measures presented in the EHS Guidelines, projects will be required to achieve whichever is more stringent. The General EHS Guidelines contain information on cross-cutting environmental, health, and safety issues potentially applicable to all industry sectors.

Innovation by design.

Logging is the cutting, skidding , on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks [1] or skeleton cars. Logging is the process of cutting trees , processing them, and moving them to a location for transport. It is the beginning of a supply chain that provides raw material for many products societies worldwide use for housing , construction , energy , and consumer paper products. Logging systems are also used to manage forests , reduce the risk of wildfires , and restore ecosystem functions. In forestry , the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest , usually a sawmill or a lumber yard.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to gain a country assessment of the knowledge and skills within the furniture industry in relation to ICTs and other emerging technologies and to develop, as appropriate, a range of training materials and activities for industry leaders CEOs, Directors, and Managers to understand and deploy the different technologies to improve the competitiveness of their enterprises. The time given by your organisation in completing this questionnaire will be greatly appreciated and will be of vital importance to the progressive improvement and future success of the industry.

New technologies are rapidly taking forest management into the electronic world. Forest management in the future will not be constrained by time or place — and the virtual forest is coming. One thing is certain: in the future, forest management will be increasingly digital, unconstrained by time or place. And we are heading towards virtual forests. There will be a day when forest owners will be able to visit their forests from the comfort of their own living room — maybe not quite tomorrow; there are still a few development steps to be taken, but the virtual forests are coming. Advanced new technologies have quickly become a part of the forest industry and have brought many opportunities with them: new kinds of services and convenience for forest owners, more accurate information about forest properties, and decreasing costs. Contrary to what you might think, in many ways digital forest services bring forest owners closer than before to their forests and forest management. They will help lower the costs of drawing up forest plans, and the information concerning a forest property will be more accurate.

Precision forestry: A revolution in the woods

Similar technological improvements, specifically within forest seed centers and nurseries, allow for the successful and cost efficient growing of seedlings and cuttings for the forest. At Bcc Plant the Planet we understand the specific needs of our customers and in order to serve these needs we have developed a very flexible line of equipment that can be adjusted to perform in the best possible way in the most different conditions. We have complete concepts for different climate conditions and species. An important part in these concepts, apart from the equipment, is the transfer of both biological and technical know-how.

Zhytomyr Region northern part in the area of Polissya and southern part in the forest-steppe is located in central part of the East-European plain in the north of the Right Bank Ukraine in two natural zones. Zhytomyr Region was established on September 22, This is one of the largest regions in Ukraine.

ZAMA Group is a well-known air-fuel-system supplier in the forest and garden machinery industry worldwide. We are cooperating with all major original equipment manufacturers OEMs of gasoline-powered outdoor tools, and we regard ourselves as the technology leader of our industry. Thanks to our expert staff of experienced engineers at our locations around the globe, we are able to answer your questions in many different languages worldwide. We value every one of our employees and their passion for continuous improvement of our processes and our products. Our success is based on and driven by their qualification, motivation, and commitment. We strive to be a responsible employer with fair working conditions and high performance expectations for employees in every country in which we are active. We aim to offer our employees attractive tasks and positions that are suited to their particular situation as well as their specialist capabilities and skills. Welcome to meet us at the booth in October! On January 17th.

An obvious way is to improve on manufacturing techniques so that commodity and managers can often substitute for high technology processing equipment in.

Saw Mill Machinery

The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp , paper , paperboard and other cellulose-based products. The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. Whereas, when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead. Drying involves using air or heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam heated can dryer. The commercial planting of domesticated mulberry trees to make pulp for papermaking is attested as early as the 6th century.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine

It covers timber harvesting, forwarding and haulage to sawmills and pulp mills. We cover sawmill activities from timber handling in woodyards and at the mill through to the cutting technology and the logistics involved in carrying them to the customer for downstream processing. In addition, IFI covers biomass collection and processing. IFI fills a void within forest related industries that suppliers in timber harvesting, sawmill operations and biomass management have believed to exist for many years. Chris Cann Editor.

Tigercat Machines

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The impacts of forest industries and wood utilization on the environment were considered. The effects of tree harvesting and logging operations on forest biodiversity, soil erosion, soil compaction and hydrological cycle are reported. Environmental pollution due to wood processing, wood utilization and waste management in forest industries was discussed. Methods of mitigating the detrimental effect of the operations of forest industries in Nigeria on the environment are suggested.

British Columbia's forest economy is at a crucial crossroads. Its survival, Roger Hayter argues, rests on its ability to remain flexible and open to innovation -- a future by no means assured given recent policy initiatives and the current contested nature of British Columbia's forests.

For many industrial manufacturers, what was once a clear path to success is now fraught with uncertainty. Making equipment for a wide array of industrial activities — such as big construction projects, large industrial facilities, oil and gas fields, and refineries — has for years been difficult to navigate, but major companies often used their size to sidestep obstacles. The strength of having multiple product lines covering the full gamut of industrial operations frequently allowed industrial manufacturers to eke out profits from some segment of their customer base even as slowdowns imperiled other sectors.

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