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Manuscript received March 6, ; final manuscript received May 4, ; published online August 3, Editor: Jinkook Lee. Cooper, P. August 3, Fluids Eng. October ; 10 : The occasion is an opportune time to celebrate and reflect on the origin of FED and its predecessor—the Hydraulic Division HYD , which existed from — Accordingly, they commissioned Paul Cooper, C. Samuel Martin, and Timothy O'Hern to prepare this paper, which would document the division's past.
The development of hydroelectric power stations necessitated the understanding of hydraulic turbine performance. This technology was a major element in design of hydraulic turbines—Francis, Kaplan, and Pelton designs.
Moreover, there were issues beyond the design of turbines, namely, water hammer, cavitation, and flow measurement, and technical areas of interest to mechanical engineers principally ASME. Because of the promise of power output from hydroelectric power stations, flow measurement was critical, resulting in improvement of various techniques including impulse—momentum Gibson Method, Fig.
John R. Freeman Fig. He was aware of the fact that European hydraulic laboratories were far more advanced than those in the U. He set out to remedy the deplorable situation by visits to Europe and the encouragement of these laboratories to encourage visitors from the U. This effort led to a comprehensive report [ 4 ], an article in German, which was later translated into English [ 5 ].
Freeman's active life was crowded with achievements in many fields. To an unusual degree, he brought the benefits of engineering to humanity in many lands, giving his energy and his money unselfishly to meritorious causes and directing his talents to business and to engineering with an enthusiasm and thoroughness that made his pursuit of both these professions successful. Exemplifying his unselfish character, Mr.
It was stipulated that income be devoted in general to research. Freeman expressed his wish that, for the moment, part of the income from the gift be used to guarantee the publication of the translation and printing of the German work on Hydraulics representing extraordinary research in that field.
He also recommended traveling scholarships for engineering students. In early years, it supported fellowships for the study of hydraulic laboratory practice in Europe, later it supported publication of important hydraulic research data, and lately, it has been granted to support research programs in hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Mention should also be made of Robert Henry Thurston, who was the first president of ASME, as well as an educator and an accomplished mechanical engineer.
Little is known about his expertise in the design of steam piping systems for heating in cities and for power plant applications. Moreover, he published an article in ASME Transactions in regarding water hammer in steam lines that, due to inactivity for a period of time, allowed the formation of condensate [ 6 ]. Introduction of hot steam in a dormant line with condensate is a current issue and is termed condensation-induced water hammer.
Although the application was for single-phase water hammer, it should be noted that the first technical committee established under HYD auspices in was the Water Hammer committee. There was, however, a ground swell of interest in establishing a division with interest solely in hydraulics. On November 25, , Dr. Lewis F. Moody led the effort as temporary chairman to formulate a petition for establishment of a professional division entitled Hydraulic Division HYD , which was endorsed by ASME members without any dissenter.
Notable cosigners of the petition were C. Allen, Worcester Poly; R. Daugherty, Caltech; W. Durand, Stanford; J. Freeman, Industry; N. Gibson, Industry; L. Harza, Industry; A. Hollander, Berkeley; S. Kerr, Industry; J. LeConte, Berkeley; C. Main, Industry; L. Moody, Consulting Engineer; and R. Quick, Industry. Over the next three decades as the activities of HYD developed, committees were formed to cover specific areas of interest. The establishment and history of the Water Hammer and Cavitation committees are found in Sec.
These committees were sometimes called subcommittees at various times over the years, and the ones existing now—including those added in subsequent years—are called Technical Committees. During the s, the HYD continued to be active in not only the traditional areas of hydraulics, namely, turbine and pump design and performance, but also emerging problems of water hammer, surge tank simulation, and cavitation.
Knapp Fig. During the decades and , there was considerable activity devoted to the understanding of surface resistance to flow, in particular, pressure loss in uniform flow in pipes. In , L. Moody, then a professor at the Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, took the friction factor correlations from Colebrook and White and prepared a working graph, which, indeed, is the standard in use today—called the Moody diagram.
The Hydraulic Division was aptly named at its inception in , continuing emphasizing activities related to hydraulics as fostered by the six original committees. However, industry was changing and topic areas not only embraced hydraulics, but also the need for research and development—principally in the expanding topic area of fluid mechanics—began to have an effect.
Opportunities existed in both industry and university settings. Contract work that existed as a result of World War II continued—especially in defense-related fields. Dean Fig. Also, the first specialty conference on hydraulics HYD was held at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, in —of a total of 20 papers, seven could be classified as fluid mechanics papers.
Then, in , a newsletter was initiated with R. Dean as Editor. Elite universities in New England and California led the way. There was also a groundswell of activity and interest in renaming HYD to more accurately reflect the interest and focus of subcommittee members. Shapiro MIT Fig. There was, however, a cadre of subcommittee members from Water Hammer and Hydraulic Prime Movers who strongly supported the name HYD, as it suited their activities.
As described by Rouse [ 7 ], a well-respected individual who brought the hydraulic-oriented members and fluid mechanics members together was George Wislicenus Fig. Moreover, Dean and Kline used their platform to stimulate discussion of unresolved fluid mechanics problems [ 8 ]. At this point, a timeline of significant events or milestones in the history of the FED would be helpful to the reader and would put all the subsequent details of the paper in the proper perspective.
Therefore, the major FED milestones are presented in Table 4. By , the fluids engineering landscape had changed sufficiently to merit a significant structural adjustment. Affected were the technical committees sometimes called subcommittees over the years and the other functions of the Division. As we have seen, this had happened in varying degrees from the formation of the Division's technical committees in the s through changes of the names of these committees and the combination of some of them into new ones that took on new areas of interest and reduced activity in other areas.
Some committees were formed and then disappeared along with activity in the fields they addressed. So the Fluids Engineering Division Executive Committee FEDEC at their meeting in late proposed a review that would ensure better coordination of their committees and would increase participation of the industrial members of the Division in its technical programs.
This would address three trends that characterized the new landscape, namely, a the increase in fluids engineering industrial applications in addition to traditional fluid machinery pumps and turbines , b a fusion of the disciplines of that traditional fluid machinery area, and c increased research in basic flows in the fluid mechanics discipline. Accordingly, under the direction of Chair Tom Morel, the FEDEC solicited input from the technical committee and coordinating group chairs, and from this, they developed a suggested structure.
The purpose of the meeting was for the attendees to examine the operation, structure, and mission of the FED and to consider improvements that would maintain and increase the effectiveness of the FED. Tom Morel presented the FEDEC report, and after discussion, the members authorized the proposed new committee structure, which is shown in the Organization Chart of Fig. The new FMTC would emphasize fundamental fluid mechanics. The program areas and subcommittee structures within these three committees were defined in a subsequent meeting of members of the FEDEC and the subcommittee chairs in October , as shown, respectively, in Tables 5 — 7 [ 9 ].
For the coordinating groups, the CGFM was charged with working in such areas as fluid meters, laser Doppler anemometry, other optical flow measurement and visualization applications, pressure and temperature measurements, and experimental uncertainty. The CGCFD was to apply computational fluid dynamics techniques to the solution of fluids engineering problems, and the program areas included numerical uncertainty, identification of benchmark cases, and cooperation with similar groups from other technical societies.
Both groups were to coordinate with the technical committees in their respective areas of endeavor. Beside the technical committees and coordinating groups, Fig.
First, there were the Standing Committees listed in the right-most column of the figure. With regard to the foregoing changes in the technical committees and coordinating groups, these are simply developments in the evolution that has been a feature of the existence of the FED from the foundation of the Division.
This evolution up to the present time can be seen in Fig. Note, in this figure, that the previous significant change was the formation of the Fluid Machinery Committee in by combining within it the activities of the earlier committees on Hydraulic Prime Movers mainly hydraulic turbines formed in , Pumping Machinery also formed in , and Compressors The name of the Cavitation Committee formed in was changed to the Polyphase Flow Committee PFC in , thereby including in its mission all types of flow with more than one phase, cavitation being only one of these.
Then, in , conforming to general terminology for such flows, this became known as the MFTC. Finally, it will be noted from Fig. The restructuring of the FED Technical Committees and Coordinating Groups was a watershed event in the development history of the FED, not only because of the actual changes that were made but also because it established a mindset that would facilitate further changes if and when future needs might demonstrate a need to do so.
In that sense, the line-up of these technical committees and coordinating groups can now be viewed as a snapshot which addressed the prevailing needs of the fluids engineering community at that point in time.
For example, as described above, just 12 years later in , the respective roles, missions, and involvements of the two Coordinating Groups—on Fluid Measurements and on CFD—had developed sufficiently to merit upgrading them to full status as Technical Committees.
To get a sense of the dynamics involved in such developments, it is instructive for us to fill out the story of each of these Technical Committees from their foundation to the present day. Of particular note, as shown in Fig. Thus, for the first time, there were then five fully functioning committees, which for the most part remained active and prominent for the next 30 years.
Presti, V. Guarepi, F. Videla, G. Torchia " Design and implementation of an integrated optical coupler by femtosecond laser written-waveguides in LiNbO3.
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Bridging rivers, gorges, narrows, straits, and valleys always has played an important role in the history of human settlement. Since ancient times, bridges have been the most visible testimony of the noble craft of engineers. A bridge can be defined in many ways, but Andrea Palladio, the great 16th century Italian architect and engineer, hit on the essence of bridge building when he said " Since the beginning of time, the goal of bridge builders has been to create as wide a span as possible which is commodious, firm, and occasionally delightful. Spanning greater distances is a distinct measure of engineering prowess. The purpose of this contextual essay is to provide parameters of value and significance so that we can focus our attention on those bridges - globally - that best illustrate the history of bridge building, and to encourage their preservation. What is a World Heritage bridge?SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Four Elements of a Successful Newsletter
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Manuscript received March 6, ; final manuscript received May 4, ; published online August 3, Editor: Jinkook Lee. Cooper, P. August 3, Fluids Eng. October ; 10 : The occasion is an opportune time to celebrate and reflect on the origin of FED and its predecessor—the Hydraulic Division HYD , which existed from —
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