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What is Alternating Current (AC)?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: DC MOTORS AND GENERATORS
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Reviewed: May 17th Published: July 18th Optimization and Control of Electrical Machines. In the last century, electrical machines have been the subject of a huge development. New concepts in design and control allow expanding their applications in different fields.
A dynamo is an obsolete electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor , the alternating-current alternator , and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation , for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices such as vacuum tubes or more recently via solid state technology is effective and usually economical. The word "dynamo" was coined in by Michael Faraday , who utilized his invention toward making many discoveries in electricity Faraday discovered electrical induction and magnetism.
Motors & Generators
Understanding the control needs of each type of engine, and the most appropriate style for a given application, can help to ensure greater efficiency in any context. A direct current motor belongs to a class of electric machines that converts direct current electricity into a mechanical one. The most common types base their functioning on the classical laws deriving from magnetic fields. Almost all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, electromechanical or electronic, which allows to periodically change the direction of the motor current flow Figure 1. The engine in constant current brushes is most frequently used, even considering the type of emerging applications, but the number of brushless motors in constant current brushless DC electric motors is constantly growing.
In electrical engineering , electric machine is a general term for machines using electromagnetic forces , such as electric motors , electric generators , and others. They are electromechanical energy converters: an electric motor converts electricity to mechanical power while an electric generator converts mechanical power to electricity. The moving parts in a machine can be rotating rotating machines or linear linear machines. Besides motors and generators, a third category often included is transformers , which although they do not have any moving parts are also energy converters, changing the voltage level of an alternating current. Electric machines were developed beginning in the mid 19th century and since that time have been a ubiquitous component of the infrastructure. Developing more efficient electric machine technology is crucial to any global conservation, green energy , or alternative energy strategy. An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electrons to flow through an external electrical circuit.
Introductory Chapter: Introduction to the Design and the Control of Electrical Machines
DC is the kind of electricity made by a battery with definite positive and negative terminals , or the kind of charge generated by rubbing certain types of materials against each other. Certain sources of electricity most notably, rotary electromechanical generators naturally produce voltages alternating in polarity, reversing positive and negative over time. Whereas the familiar battery symbol is used as a generic symbol for any DC voltage source, the circle with the wavy line inside is the generic symbol for any AC voltage source. One might wonder why anyone would bother with such a thing as AC. It is true that in some cases AC holds no practical advantage over DC. In applications where electricity is used to dissipate energy in the form of heat, the polarity or direction of current is irrelevant, so long as there is enough voltage and current to the load to produce the desired heat power dissipation. However, with AC it is possible to build electric generators, motors and power distribution systems that are far more efficient than DC, and so we find AC being used predominantly across the world in high power applications. To explain the details of why this is so, a bit of background knowledge about AC is necessary. This is the basic operating principle of an AC generator, also known as an alternator : Figure below. Notice how the polarity of the voltage across the wire coils reverses as the opposite poles of the rotating magnet pass by.
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Electric machines and power circuits
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DC and AC motor driving
The power electronics field has become an important topic in the electronics industry and the information technology area telecom products and electronic consumer appliances requiring many power electronics sub-systems. Typical power electronics applications include electronic ballasts, high voltage DC transmission systems HVDC , power conditioners, UPS systems, power supplies, power factor correction, rectifiers, electric vehicles and one of the major area of applications is the control and driving of electric motors from very large motors for industrial and traction applications down to small electric motors in consumer electronic equipment with accurate control of speed, torque and position of the armature, etc. To highlight the advantages of power electronics laboratory, De Lorenzo has included also three different motors for DC and AC applications; shunt excitation DC motor, slip ring and squirrel cage three-phase motors with powder brake and control unit to demonstrate how power electronic circuits plays a vital role in controlling these motors. There are available three trainers, one for DC motor drive in single-quadrant, two-quadrant or four-quadrant drive and two for AC motor drive properties of slip ring and squirrel cage motors with their speed control.
Armature windings : a practical analysis of armature windings for direct-current and alternating current machines, including rules and diagrams for reconnecting induction motor armatures. Armature winding; a practical analysis of armature windings for direct-current and alternating current machines, including rules and diagrams for reconnecting induction motor armatures,. Armature winding; a practical manual on the construction, winding and repairing of A.
Alternator - A synchronous rotating AC machine used to change mechanical power into electrical power alternating current - AC. The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave, as this results in the most efficient transmission of energy. Ambient Temperature - Ambient temperature is the temperature of water, air or surrounding medium where the equipment is used or stored.
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