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Precision forestry: A revolution in the woodsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Amazing Biggest Excavator Mulchers Modern Technology - Fastest Land Clearing Equipment
For the purposes of the present chapter, forestry is understood to embrace all the fieldwork required to establish, regenerate, manage and protect forests and to harvest their products. The last step in the production chain covered by this chapter is the transport of raw forest products. Further processing, such as into sawnwood, furniture or paper is dealt with in the Lumber, Woodworking and Pulp and paper industries chapters in this Encyclopaedia.
The forests may be natural, human-made or tree plantations. Forest products considered in this chapter are both wood and other products, but emphasis is on the former, because of its relevance for safety and health. The utilization and management of forests are as old as the human being. Initially forests were almost exclusively used for subsistence: food, fuelwood and building materials.
The pressure on forests was aggravated by early industrialization. The combined effect of conversion and over-utilization was a sharp reduction in forest area in Europe, the Middle East, India, China and later in parts of North America.
Presently, forests cover about one-quarter of the land surface of the earth. The deforestation process has come to a halt in industrialized countries, and forest areas are actually increasing in these countries, albeit slowly.
In most tropical and subtropical countries, however, forests are shrinking at a rate of 15 to 20 million hectares ha , or 0. Asia has the lowest forest cover in terms of percentage of land area under forest and hectares per capita. Forest resources vary significantly in different parts of the world. These differences have a direct impact on the working environment, on the technology used in forestry operations and on the level of risk associated with them.
Boreal forests in northern parts of Europe, Russia and Canada are mostly made up of conifers and have a relatively small number of trees per hectare. Most of these forests are natural. Moreover, the individual trees are small in size. Because of the long winters, trees grow slowly and wood increment ranges from less than 0.
The temperate forests of southern Canada, the United States, Central Europe, southern Russia, China and Japan are made up of a wide range of coniferous and broad-leaved tree species. Tree densities are high and individual trees can be very large, with diameters of more than 1 m and tree height of more than 50 m. Forests may be natural or human-made i. Standing volumes per hectare and increment are high.
Tropical and subtropical forests are mostly broad-leaved. Tree sizes and standing volumes vary greatly, but tropical timber harvested for industrial purposes is typically in the form of large trees with big crowns. Average dimensions of harvested trees are highest in the tropics, with logs of more than 2 m 3 being the rule.
Standing trees with crowns routinely weigh more than 20 tonnes before felling and debranching. Dense undergrowth and tree climbers make work even more cumbersome and dangerous.
An increasingly important type of forest in terms of wood production and employment is tree plantations. Tropical plantations are thought to cover about 35 million hectares, with about 2 million hectares added per year FAO They usually consist of only one very fast growing species. Various pines Pinus spp. Plantations are managed intensively and in short rotations from 6 to 30 years , while most temperate forests take 80, sometimes up to years, to mature.
Trees are fairly uniform, and small to medium in size, with approximately 0. There is typically little undergrowth. Prompted by wood scarcity and natural disasters like landslides, floods and avalanches, more and more forests have come under some form of management over the last years. Wood utilization levels in most industrialized countries are below the growth rates.
This is not true for many tropical countries. Globally, wood is by far the most important forest product. World roundwood production is approaching 3. Wood production grew by 1. There is, however, a major difference in the nature of the wood products harvested in industrialized and in developing countries. This is why the list of the ten biggest producers of industrial roundwood in figure Non-wood forest products are still very significant for subsistence in many countries.
They account for only 1. Forestry alone accounted for 0. The share of forestry production in GDP tends to be much higher in developing countries, with an average of 2. In a number of countries forestry is far more important than the averages suggest. In several industrialized and developing countries, forest products are a significant export. While they cannot be readily expressed in monetary terms, the value of non-commercial goods and benefits generated by forests may well exceed their commercial output.
According to estimates, some to million people live in or depend on forests for their livelihood. Forests are also home to three-quarters of all species of living beings.
They are a significant sink of carbon dioxide and serve to stabilize climates and water regimes. They reduce erosion, landslides and avalanches, and produce clean drinking water. They are also fundamental for recreation and tourism. Figures on wage employment in forestry are difficult to obtain and can be unreliable even for industrialized countries.
The reasons are the high share of the self-employed and farmers, who do not get recorded in many cases, and the seasonality of many forestry jobs. Statistics in most developing countries simply absorb forestry into the much larger agricultural sector, with no separate figures available. The biggest problem, however, is the fact that most forestry work is not wage employment, but subsistence. The main item here is the production of fuelwood, particularly in developing countries.
Bearing these limitations in mind, figure World wage employment in forestry is in the order of 2. This is a fraction of the downstream employment: wood industries and pulp and paper have at least 12 million employees in the formal sector. Total forestry employment can thus be estimated at some 16 million person years. In most industrialized countries the size of the forestry workforce has been shrinking.
This is a result of a shift from seasonal to full-time, professional forest workers, compounded by rapid mechanization, particularly of wood harvesting. Figure These differences are to some extent due to natural conditions, silvicultural systems and statistical error. Even allowing for these, significant gaps persist. The transformation in the workforce is likely to continue: mechanization is spreading to more countries, and new forms of work organization, namely team work concepts, are boosting productivity, while harvesting levels remain by and large constant.
It should be noted that in many countries seasonal and part-time work in forestry are unrecorded, but remain very common among farmers and small woodland owners. In a number of developing countries the industrial forestry workforce is likely to grow as a result of more intensive forest management and tree plantations.
Subsistence employment, on the other hand, is likely to decline gradually, as fuelwood is slowly replaced by other forms of energy. Characteristics of the Workforce Industrial forestry work has largely remained a male domain. There are, however, jobs that tend to be predominantly carried out by women, such as planting or tending of young stands and raising seedlings in tree nurseries. In subsistence employment women are a majority in many developing countries, because they are usually responsible for fuelwood gathering.
The largest share of all industrial and subsistence forestry work is related to the harvesting of wood products. The ratio is smaller in most industrialized countries. Broadly, there are two groups of forestry jobs: those related to silviculture and those related to harvesting.
Typical occupations in silviculture include tree planting, fertilization, weed and pest control, and pruning. Tree planting is very seasonal, and in some countries involves a separate group of workers exclusively dedicated to this activity. In harvesting, the most common occupations are chain-saw operation, in tropical forests often with an assistant; choker setters who attach cables to tractors or skylines pulling logs to roadside; helpers who measure, move, load or debranch logs; and machine operators for tractors, loaders, cable cranes, harvesters and logging trucks.
There are major differences between segments of the forestry workforce with respect to the form of employment, which have a direct bearing on their exposure to safety and health hazards. The share of forest workers directly employed by the forest owner or industry has been declining even in those countries where it used to be the rule. More and more work is done through contractors i. The contractors may be owner-operators i.
Both the contractors and their employees often have very unstable employment. Under pressure to cut costs in a very competitive market, contractors sometimes resort to illegal practices such as moonlighting and hiring undeclared immigrants.
While the move to contracting has in many cases helped to cut costs, to advance mechanization and specialization as well as to adjust the workforce to changing demands, some traditional ailments of the profession have been aggravated through the increased reliance on contract labour. These include accident rates and health complaints, both of which tend to be more frequent among contract labour. Contract labour has also contributed to further increasing the high rate of turnover in the forestry workforce.
This aggravates the skill problem already looming large among much of the forestry workforce. Most skill acquisition is still by experience, usually meaning trial and error. The dominant wage system in forestry by far continues to be piece-rates i. Piece-rates tend to lead to a rapid pace of work and are widely believed to increase the number of accidents. There is, however, no scientific evidence to back this contention. One undisputed side effect is that earnings fall once workers have reached a certain age because their physical abilities decline.
In countries where mechanization plays a major role, time-based wages have been on the increase, because the work rhythm is largely determined by the machine. Various bonus wage systems are also in use.
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LIGNA 2017: The ultimate in forestry technology
Trends in forest management and utilization Status and trends in forest management Evolving patterns of harvesting, processing and marketing Status and trends in forest management Forest management encompasses the administrative, economic, legal, social and technical measures involved in the conservation and use of natural forests and forest plantations. It involves various degrees of human intervention to safeguard the forest ecosystem, its functions and its resources for the sustained production of goods and the provision of environmental services. While the objectives of management vary widely and include the protection of resources in protected forests and nature reserves, the primary objective has often been the production of wood products. A basic tenet of forest management with emphasis on wood production is 'sustained yield', or harvesting the wood increment without drawing down on the forest capital.
5 Mobile Technology Trends in the Forestry Industry
What was once used only for air space and meteorological research, LiDAR — which stands for Light Detection and Ranging and is commonly referred to as airborne laser scanning — is now being used for forest research to more accurately examine everything from the height and diameter of trees to ground terrain evaluation and plot-level wood volume estimates. In the just-released video Forest for the Trees: How technology is transforming B. Coops explains LiDAR technology can be used with airplanes or drones and involves sending pulses of light down to the ground that bounce back and mirrors the data captured into images that allow forest planners to measure the topography, depth, height, slope and other values of the land being surveyed. LiDAR can provide a wide range of enhanced ecological applications such as evaluating microhabitat diversity and watershed modelling.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Cities: Skylines Industries - Quick Start Guide to Forestry Industry #1
There is a shortage of wood despite the fact that the world has more than enough forest soil to provide wood for the earth's peoples and that with proper forest management and utilization enough wood could be produced to supply all existing needs. The present lumber and housing shortage is serious. Millions of buildings are in need of repairs; millions of new buildings are needed to restore housing standards to prewar levels. World supplies of lumber are already insufficient to meet current demands, and when reconstruction programs attain full momentum the deficit will be even greater. In addition, there is a long-standing wood deficit, of which the present critical shortage of structural wood is only a part and which, in many parts of the world, has had pernicious affect for decades. This shortage is all the more serious because of rising demands for wood for pulp and for a growing wood chemical industry. The causes of this critical situation are basic and include deforestation, inadequate forest management, failure to develop mature forests, incomplete utilization, and insufficient technical personnel. Abnormal demands in certain areas, brought about by the impact of war.
The first industrial age
For the purposes of the present chapter, forestry is understood to embrace all the fieldwork required to establish, regenerate, manage and protect forests and to harvest their products. The last step in the production chain covered by this chapter is the transport of raw forest products. Further processing, such as into sawnwood, furniture or paper is dealt with in the Lumber, Woodworking and Pulp and paper industries chapters in this Encyclopaedia. The forests may be natural, human-made or tree plantations.
The global forestry equipment market is likely to expand at a steady pace in the coming years due to the growth in production of industrial round wood. The growing focus on forest management has created a huge demand for forestry equipment. There has been a growing awareness of forest preservation and management. The increasing focus on forest management has led to the demand for forestry equipment. The demand for forestry equipment has led to innovations in related products. The forestry industry is taking several efforts to enable high quality of the yield, along with an increase in quantity. These efforts have contributed to an increase in demand for forestry equipment. Fortune Business Insights has predicted that the aforementioned factors will aid the growth of the global forestry equipment market in the coming years. The global forestry equipment market is blessed with product innovations by renowned companies.
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The last half of the 18th century saw the unfolding of a series of events, primarily in England, that later historians would call the first Industrial Revolution , which would have a profound influence on society as a whole as well as on building technology. Among the first of these events was the large-scale production of iron, beginning with the work of Abraham Darby , who in was the first to use coke as a fuel in the smelting process. Henry Cort developed the puddling process for making wrought iron in , and in the same year he built the first rolling mill, powered by a steam engine, to produce rolled lengths of wrought-iron bars, angles, and other shapes. Cast iron , which has a higher carbon content than wrought iron but is more brittle, was also produced on a large scale. Standard iron building elements soon appeared, pointing the way to the development of metal buildings.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests , woodlands , and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Modern forestry generally embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber , fuel wood, wildlife habitat , natural water quality management , recreation , landscape and community protection, employment, aesthetically appealing landscapes , biodiversity management, watershed management , erosion control , and preserving forests as " sinks " for atmospheric carbon dioxide.
And when it does, its forestry technology section will sport a number of exciting new features. The open-air site will be arranged in various "theme avenues" dedicated to key aspects of the wood production chain, and will also feature a central demonstration site. Plus there will be an activity zone in front of Pavilion
The growing focus on forest management has created a huge demand for forestry equipment. There has been a growing awareness of forest preservation and management. The increasing focus on forest management has led to the demand for forestry equipment.
I THIS PAPER the author intends that the word "technology" be used in its broadest sense as meaning the application of the botanical, biological and physical sciences, mathematics, various disciplines of engineering and computers to the forests and to the manufacturing industries based on them. Today there is an increasing tendency to regard the operations of growing, protecting and harvesting trees and transporting wood from the forests to the manufacturing plants as integral parts of the total production activity.