Wood , the principal strengthening and nutrient-conducting tissue of trees and other plants and one of the most abundant and versatile natural materials. Produced by many botanical species, including both gymnosperms and angiosperms , wood is available in various colours and grain patterns. It is strong in relation to its weight, is insulating to heat and electricity , and has desirable acoustic properties. As a material, wood has been in service since humans appeared on Earth. Today, in spite of technological advancement and competition from metals , plastics , cement , and other materials, wood maintains a place in most of its traditional roles, and its serviceability is expanding through new uses.
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Forests Face New Threat: Global Market ChangesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Collum's Lumber Products, LLC - Sawmill Tour
The terminology used in forest engineering and harvesting has evolved over many years, beginning with the early lumberjacks who cut trees for homes and industry. With increased mechanization since the early 's, the meanings of some terms have changed, and many new terms have been added.
Changes in forest management and increased utilization of the forest brought about by new products have also added to the scope of forest engineering terminology.
With the increasing cost and complexity of forest operations, there is an ever-growing need for standardization of forest engineering terminology. The objective of this publication is to provide a glossary of definitions for a broad group of terms used in forestry and in forest engineering, with an emphasis on harvesting. This list of terms and definitions should result in better communication among people involved in forest engineering. A literature review was conducted to assemble the terms from published sources in an attempt to exclude colloquial terminology.
The literature citations referenced for each term follow the definition in parentheses. References are listed in the literature cited section.
Although this collection does not include all timber harvesting and forest engineering terms, it is hoped that the compilation will provide a sufficiently extensive glossary for forest operations. The references listed can be used as sources for terms not found in this publication. A A-frame Two wood or metal uprights mounted in the shape of the letter 'W' to support lead blocks at the upper end Two poles lashed together with a crosspiece in the form of an 'W' with a block hung in the apex of the poles used as a loading device with the poles or sawed timbers joined at the top, anchored at the base, and guyed with cable 8.
Aboveground biomass Aboveground portion of a tree, excluding the root system Abney level Hand-held clinometer used to measure slope in percent Access Means of gaining entry to timber on a tract or logging chance 6. Accumulating shear Shearhead on a feller-buncher that is capable of accumulating and holding two or more cut stems Allowable-cut effect. Active repair time See machine time, mechanical delay time, scheduled operating time, delay time.
Actual productive time See machine time, productive time. Admiralty shackle Heavy shackle at the tail tree that connects the skyline to the stub line guy line extension Adverse grade In highway transport, uphill haul that requires trucks to use lower gears Gradient that slopes upward in the direction of loaded log truck travel.
Aerial logging Yarding system employing aerial lift of logs, such as balloons or helicopters Aerial photogrammetry Interpreting information from aerial photographs Afforestation Establishment of forest crops by artificial methods, such as planting or sowing on land where trees have never grown Age Mean age of the trees comprising a forest, crop, or stand. In forests, the mean age of dominant and sometimes codominant trees is taken.
The plantation age is generally taken from the year the plantation was begun, without adding the age of the nursery stock. Of a tree: the time elapsed since the germination of the seed, or the budding of the sprout or cutting from which the tree developed Age class One of the intervals, commonly 10 or 20 years, into which the age range of1ree crops is divided for classification or use.
Also pertains to the trees included in such an interval. For example, trees ranging in age from 21 to 40 years fall into a year age class; 30 designates the mid point of the year interval from 21 to 40 years Air-dried Lumber or other wood products that have been either dried by exposure to natural atmospheric conditions outdoors or in an unheated shed or dried to equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere.
Moisture content of air-dried wood fiber depends on relative humidity, temperature, and length of drying period. Also referred to as air seasoned All-aged Forest or stand containing trees of almost all age classes up to and including trees of harvestable age Alligator See crotch.
All live trees See tree classes. Allowable cut Volume of timber that may be harvested during a given period to maintain sustained production Allowable-cut effect Allocation of anticipated future forest timber yields to the present allowable cut; this is employed to increase current harvest levels especially when constrained by evenflow by spreading anticipated future growth over all the years in the rotation Anchor cable Line used to tie down a yarder to prevent tipping on a heavy pull Anchor log Wooden, concrete, or metal bar buried in the earth to hold a guy rope.
Also called a deadman Angledozer Heavy steel blade mounted across the front of a crawler tractor. The blade can be raised and lowered, and each end can be advanced and retracted to place the blade at various angles, making it possible to push dirt to either side Annual allowable harvest Quantity of timber scheduled to be removed from a particular management unit in 1 year Annual growth Average annual increase in the biomass of growing-stock trees of a specified area Anvil Fixed steel block that provides support and resistance for the cutting blade of a single-action tree shear.
The hydraulically operated cutting blade slices through the tree towards the anvil. Also known as a bed plate 9. See portable chipper terms Appraised price Price of a particular timber sale based on the estimate of the timber's actual market value.
The minimum acceptable price on a sale Arch Supporting device towed behind or mounted on a skidding vehicle. Arching Skidding logs or trees using a mounted or trailing arch 8. Area regulation Method of controlling the annual or periodic acreage harvested from a forest, despite fluctuations in fiber-yield volumes.
Leads to a managed forest Usually covers more than one operating season and requires the operator to return annually to remove any dead timber present Articulated With reference to a vehicle, hinged at the center for turning, as with a wheeled skidder Artificial regeneration Renewal of the forest by planting or direct seeding; establishing a new stand of trees by planting seeds or seedlings by hand or machine Aspect Compass direction to which a slope faces.
Also called exposure Average yarding distance Total yarding distance for all turns divided by total number of turns for a particular setting Average yarding distance. Back to Top.
According to the FAO India has around Around Public lands can be classified as protected, production or village forests. Many flora or fauna species are endemic to India. Indian forest types include tropical evergreens, tropical deciduous, swamps, mangroves, sub-tropical, montane, scrub, sub-alpine and alpine forests. The most widely distributed genera in tropical wet evergreen forests are Dipterocarpus , Hopea, Callophyllum and Syzgium , and the families Lauraceae and Myrthaceae are also well represented.
Lumber and Wood Industries
Menominee Tribal Enterprises
The Colorado Forest Products CFP database contains Colorado companies that produce products made with at least 50 percent wood derived from Colorado forests as a result of forest management activities. Wood to Energy Program. Forest Business Loan Fund. Forest Products Database. Animal Bedding. Blue Stain. Exterior Buildings.
Lumber is a generic term that applies to various lengths of wood used as construction materials. Pieces of lumber are cut lengthwise from the trunks of trees and are characterized by having generally rectangular or square cross sections, as opposed to poles or pilings, which have round cross sections. The use of wood as a construction material predates written history. The earliest evidence of wood construction comes from a site near Nice, France, where a series of post holes seems to indicate that a hut 20 ft 6m wide by 50 ft 15 m long was built there , years ago using wood posts for support. The oldest wood construction found intact is located in northwest Germany, and was built about 7, years ago. By B. The first reference to cutting wood in a sawmill, rather than using hand tools, comes from northern Europe and dates from about The sawmill was powered by the flow of water.
Environmental Systems Research. December , Cite as. Wood is a versatile raw material and the only renewable construction material. The manufacture of wood products and structures consumes little energy in comparison to similar products and structures made of other materials.
By Jerry F. Franklin , K. Norman Johnson. An overhaul of forest policy is needed to deal with the economic and environmental consequences of globalized production. For the past years, U. Indeed, at times during the 20th century, there were fears of an impending timber famine. Policymakers responded accordingly, taking actions such as subsidizing reforestation, creating the national forests, and protecting forests from fires. Now, however, the world has been turned upside down. The United States today finds itself in a world of timber surpluses and increasing competition. As a result, this country faces a declining role in the global wood products industry.
Glossary of Forestry Terms
Log In. North Carolina has about Most of the wood and fiber resources available throughout the state have been consumed by several sawmills, pulp and Oriented Strand Board OSB mills, and recently pellet mills. That demand motivates the production of mature, sawtimber-sized trees suitable for producing lumber. Softwood tree species, predominantly the southern yellow pines Pinus spp. Loblolly pine is a dominant softwood species, covering about 4. The mixed oak species group, mainly white oak, red oak and hickory, covers about 1. Lower grade hardwood sawtimber produces lumber for upholstered furniture frames, mats, and board roads for energy exploration, along with pallets for shipping goods across the country and around the world. Following the similar method adopted by McConnell , annual production, consumption, and values of softwood and hardwood lumber revenues in North Carolina are estimated based on posted market prices.
Forest Products Industry
Descriptions of manufacturing processes 1. This analysis had to identify the amount, type and quality of energy required so as to identify possible energy savings compatible to the respective cost-benefit analysis. The following process descriptions of the manufacture of sawn timber, plywood and particleboard are of a general nature and should provide the reader with a broad outline of the production processes involved in the mechanical wood-based industry and the role in which energy plays a part. Sawmilling is a less sophisticated activity of the mechanical forest industries. It implies a certain number of operations from handling and transportation of logs to timber drying, sorting and classification which require different types of energy. Whereas in developing countries most of the processes are highly mechanized and the energy requirements are met basically with the generation of a few kW to drive the main saws. The rest of the processes are carried out using animal power and low-cost manpower. Nevertheless, independently of the nature of the processes and activities involved, all actions aimed to save energy require a detailed analysis of existing processes and possible solutions. Figure 1 provides a layout of a typical plant and a description of the main processes to familiarize the reader. Sufficient quantities are stockpiled to ensure the sawmill's continuous operation, particularly during adverse weather conditions when log extraction and supply from the forests may be adversely affected.
Lumber North American English or timber used in the rest of the English-speaking world is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks , a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber.
Acre An area of land measuring 43, square feet. A square 1-acre plot measures feet by feet; a circular acre has a radius of Amphibian Any of a class of vertebrates that regulate their body temperature externally; lay shell-less eggs in wet areas; live in water during early development and live both in water and on land as adults; and use lungs, gills and their skin for breathing. Most have four legs and smooth, moist skin without scales.
Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Softwood, derived from coniferous trees , supplies most of the manufacturers in these industries and is cut primarily in British Columbia.
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