Understanding modern aerospace manufacturing processes requires that they be viewed in the context of the historical development of vehicle design. The spruce and fir frames of aircraft through World War I required skilled woodworkers and their equipment, coupled with crafters—often women transferring homemaking skills to the shop—who laced or sewed fabric to the frames. At the same time, with the exception of the air-cooled engine designs developed by the Wright brothers and sold widely in Europe, aircraft engine manufacturing was an extension of the production of liquid-cooled automobile motors. Emphasized were refined machining techniques for the cylinder head fins, which provided the extensive cooling surfaces needed. The advent of metal airframes changed both the character of manufacturing processes and the skills required of production workers.
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Understanding modern aerospace manufacturing processes requires that they be viewed in the context of the historical development of vehicle design. The spruce and fir frames of aircraft through World War I required skilled woodworkers and their equipment, coupled with crafters—often women transferring homemaking skills to the shop—who laced or sewed fabric to the frames.
At the same time, with the exception of the air-cooled engine designs developed by the Wright brothers and sold widely in Europe, aircraft engine manufacturing was an extension of the production of liquid-cooled automobile motors.
Emphasized were refined machining techniques for the cylinder head fins, which provided the extensive cooling surfaces needed. The advent of metal airframes changed both the character of manufacturing processes and the skills required of production workers.
At first, only the wood framework of fuselages was replaced by tubular aluminum trusses connected with mechanical fasteners or welding ; coverings were still sewn and glued fabric. In the mid s, as thin rolled aluminum alloys became available, all-metal structures for fuselages and then wings became prevalent. Skilled craftsmen were required to operate the metalworking machines, and new emphasis was placed on flush riveting and welding and on hard tooling of fixtures to facilitate alignment and assembly.
At the same time, the forging of landing-gear components and major structural fittings and the forming of sheet metal grew to resemble processes in the automobile industry. This affinity became particularly close as all-metal bombers and transports revolutionized manufacturing of all but small private planes.
It was not surprising, therefore, that the mass producers of automobiles and related equipment became manufacturers of military aircraft during World War II. After the war, jet propulsion and other technical advances led to further changes in manufacturing techniques and processes.
The economics of high-speed transports resulted in increases in passenger capacity, which necessitated aircraft much larger than wartime bombers. Thus, a community of structural subassembly contractors building wings, sections of fuselages , and horizontal surfaces now relieve some of the space and tooling needs of prime contractors such as Boeing in the United States and Airbus Industrie in Europe.
Russian companies, however, still operate in a more vertically integrated mode, keeping all aspects of component manufacture and assembly within one organization. Large aircraft consist of the assembly of one million to five million separate parts, and complex spacecraft of several hundred thousand parts. Each different type demands unique skills and manufacturing methods. Because of the extensive range of skills and facilities required, no single company builds an entire flight vehicle.
Manufacturing in the aerospace industry crosses nearly all construction boundaries—for example, conventional machine shops for mechanical components, clean rooms for electronic parts, and unusually large final-assembly facilities for multi-hundred-ton aircraft, space vehicles, and missiles. In every developed country of the world, major aerospace production programs incorporate a complete range of hardware and software from suppliers that operate as subcontractors to the prime contractor or systems integrator.
Subcontracting covers not only the onboard equipment but also, in most large projects, major elements of the airframe itself. In Europe, where large developments occur in multinational cooperative efforts, the distribution of the production is especially broad. Fabrication involves the manufacture of individual components that make up larger assemblies or end products. This activity encompasses the working of metals and the incorporation of electrical and electronic devices into processors, circuit boards, and subassemblies for the components of navigation, communication, and control systems.
Most of the basic metal-fabrication methods have been employed since World War II. Modern differences, such as tighter metal-cutting tolerances, are related to advances in the capabilities of machines and tools see metallurgy: Metalworking. In electronic fabrication, changes have mirrored those of the semiconductor and computer industries. In past decades, electronic elements having single functions were linked with wiring to make up the multiple functions necessary for systems.
In modern systems, hundreds of functions are performed by a single microchip or, in conjunction with microminiaturized elements, by printed circuit boards see integrated circuit. Metals are cut, shaped, bored, bent, and formed by tools and machines operated manually or, increasingly, under the control of computers programmed to guide the necessary operations consistently and with greater precision than can normally be provided by humans.
The parallels for electrical and electronic fabrication are robotic tools for insertion of components into circuit boards, wave soldering an automated process for securing components to circuit boards with a standing wave of molten solder for rapid, uniform connections, and photolithography photographic transfer of a pattern to a surface for etching for making circuit boards and multichip modules.
Materials play an important role not only in the fabrication methods used but also in the safety measures employed. For example, beryllium , whose combination of light weight, high strength, and high melting point makes it a valuable structural material, yields dust and chips during machining.
Because exposure to beryllium particles can cause adverse health effects, special care is required to preclude their contamination of personnel or atmosphere. Polymer -matrix composites also require special contamination protection because of the toxic character of the resins involved. In the production of components that must bear high loads yet be as light as possible, aerospace fabricators have evolved engineering techniques for modifying the characteristics of a material.
The most notable example is the so-called honeycomb sandwich, which is far lighter than a metal plate of comparable thickness and has greater resistance to bending. The sandwich consists of a honeycomb core, composed of rows of hollow hexagonal cells, bonded between extremely thin metal face sheets.
Aluminum is the most extensively used metal in both core and face sheets, but the technique is applicable to a large variety of metallic and nonmetallic materials.
Sandwich construction is now employed to some degree in almost every type of flight vehicle. Polymer-matrix composites are valued in the aerospace industry for their stiffness, lightness, and heat resistance see materials science: Polymer-matrix composites.
They are fabricated materials in which carbon or hydrocarbon fibres and sometimes metallic strands, filaments, or particles are bonded together by polymer resins in either sheet or fibre-wound form. In the former, individual sheet elements are layered in metal , wood, or plastic molds and joined with adhesives. Applications for sheet composites include wing skins and fuselage bulkheads in aircraft and the underlying support for solar arrays in satellites.
In fibre-wound forms, tubular or spherical shapes are fabricated by winding continuous fibre on a spinning mold mandrel with high-speed, computer-programmed precision, injecting liquid resin as the part is formed, and then curing the resin. This process is used for forming rocket motor casings; spherical containers for fuels, lubricants, and gases; and ducts for aircraft environmental systems.
Military aircraft demand lightweight structures to achieve high performance. Moreover, the materials used must be able to withstand the temperatures created by air friction when the vehicle is flying at high speeds.
These requirements have fostered the use of new metals such as aluminum- magnesium alloys and titanium , as well as composites and polymers for many surfaces—as much as 35 percent of the structure see materials science: Materials for aerospace.
The manufacture of these materials and their products has created new challenges. Forming it into sheets generally requires heated dies and specialized machining and grinding. Titanium is therefore usually limited to applications, such as leading edges for wings and tails and related fittings, where its characteristics excel.
Composites, on the other hand, are increasingly becoming staples of aircraft outer surfaces; thus, most structure manufacturers incorporate the necessary fabrication technology in their factories. To achieve required strengths, composite materials must be bonded in either hot- or cold-cure processes. Bonding is achieved within a vacuum, supplied either within evacuated rubberized bags or in autoclaves temperature- and pressure-controlled chambers.
Complementing the fabrication of composite sheets and fibre-wound forms is a comparatively recent method called pultrusion, which extrudes composite shapes in much the same fashion as molten metals are forced through a die. Other composite-making techniques incorporate the kind of ultralight structural practices used with metals and fibreglass, such as sandwich construction.
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Home waste processing equipment manufacturers. Read More. K Mobile Crusher also known as mobile crushing station, developed based on years of independent research and manufacturing experience of mobile crushers. K Series Mobile Crushing plant as it is also called, is often used as a primary crusher in a mult. NK series mobile crushing plant is new generation of mobile crushing station equipped with intelligent control system.
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We accomplish this by bringing together passionate, expert staff who really care about our clients, We understand that our work is out there making a difference in people's lives. Strategic infrastructure has been established for full design and research projects. Aimtron's expertise includes medical, military, automotive, consumer, commercial, gaming, Alternative Energy and many other key areas of industrial applications. We at Aimtron believe in the importance of proximity to our clients and therefore have started a customer services location in phoenix, AZ for our Western Clients, we are planning for a western manufacturing facility in near future. Aimtron is pursuing the same proximity for our eastern customers as well.
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Innovation and collaborative, synchronized program management for new programs. Integration of mechanical, software and electronic systems technologies for vehicle systems. Product innovation through effective management of integrated formulations, packaging and manufacturing processes. New product development leverages data to improve quality and profitability and reduce time-to-market and costs. Supply chain collaboration in design, construction, maintenance and retirement of mission-critical assets. Visibility, compliance and accountability for insurance and financial industries.
Among the characteristics of a company that shape corporate and therefore manufacturing strategy are its dominant orientation market or product , pattern of diversification product, market, or process , attitude toward growth acceptance of low growth rate , and choice between competitive strategies high profit margins versus high output volumes. Once the basic attitudes or priorities are established, […]. Once the basic attitudes or priorities are established, the manufacturing arm of a company must arrange its structure and management so as to reinforce these corporate aims. When they are operating smoothly, they are almost invisible. But manufacturing is getting increasing attention from business managers who, only a few years ago, were preoccupied with marketing or financial matters. The fact is that in most companies the great bulk of the assets used—the capital invested, the people employed, and management time—are in the operations side of the business. This is true of both manufacturing and service organizations, in both the private and public sectors of our economy. The problems and pressures facing manufacturing companies ultimately find their way to the factory floor, where managers have to deal with them through some sort of organizational structure. Unfortunately, this structure often is itself part of the problem. For example:.
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The diversity of processes and products within the microelectronics and semiconductor industry is immense. The focus of the occupational health and safety discussion in this chapter centres on semiconductor integrated circuit IC production both in silicon-based products and valence III-V compounds , printed wiring board PWB production, printed circuit board PCB assembly and computer assembly. The industry is composed of numerous major segments.
Manufacturing is no longer simply about making physical products. Changes in consumer demand, the nature of products, the economics of production, and the economics of the supply chain have led to a fundamental shift in the way companies do business. Customers demand personalization and customization as the line between consumer and creator continues to blur. As technology continues to advance exponentially, barriers to entry, commercialization, and learning are eroding. New market entrants with access to new tools can operate at much smaller scale, enabling them to create offerings once the sole province of major incumbents. While large-scale production will always dominate some segments of the value chain, innovative manufacturing models—distributed small-scale local manufacturing, loosely coupled manufacturing ecosystems, and agile manufacturing—are arising to take advantage of these new opportunities. Meanwhile, the boundary separating product makers from product sellers is increasingly permeable. Manufacturers are feeling the pressure—and gaining the ability—to increase both speed to market and customer engagement. And numerous factors are leading manufacturers to build to order rather than building to stock. In this environment, intermediaries that create value by holding inventory are becoming less and less necessary. Together, these shifts have made it more difficult to create value in traditional ways.
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A free membership site "my Murata" provides "Forums", "Exclusive Contents" and a few "Samples" of some products. Murata Newsletters provide information about our various products and technologies, and occasionally, short articles. We hope you find the Newsletters interesting and enjoyable. Murata is shaping automotive technologies, for the benefit of our vehicles, the occupants, and the earth we navigate. Providing you the performance, efficiency, and reliability for a multitude of industrial applications. Murata technologies are improving tomorrow's healthcare products and equipment - for life. Murata innovations for today's and tomorrow's smarthomes, offering improved energy efficiency, aircare and higher quality of living. Healthcare equipment, Smart Home Automation, Lighting, Security and more, Murata proudly delivers solutions for every electronics challenge.
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JJS Manufacturing specialises in supporting OEMs who are looking to outsource their supply chain, assembly, test and logistics on a long-term partnership basis. The start of an outsourcing partnership is an exciting time, but it can also be a little daunting. Find out what will happen during the all important early stages.
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In the microelectronics industry, a semiconductor fabrication plant commonly called a fab ; sometimes foundry is a factory where devices such as integrated circuits are manufactured. A business that operates a semiconductor fab for the purpose of fabricating the designs of other companies, such as fabless semiconductor companies , is known as a foundry. If a foundry does not also produce its own designs, it is known as a pure-play semiconductor foundry.
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Других забыли еще до их смерти. Расцвет науки, которая с непреложной регулярностью отвергала космогонические построения всех этих болтунов и дарила людям чудеса, о которых ясновидцы и мессии и помыслить-то были не в состоянии, в конце концов не оставил от всех этих верований камня на камне.
Наука не уничтожила благоговейного изумления, почтения и сознания своей незначительности испытываемых всеми разумными существами, когда они размышляют о необъятности Вселенной.