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Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium , but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum radio waves , in a one-to-many model.
Before this, all forms of electronic communication early radio , telephone , and telegraph were one-to-one , with the message intended for a single recipient. The term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. Over the air broadcasting is usually associated with radio and television , though in recent years, both radio and television transmissions have begun to be distributed by cable cable television.
The receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively small subset; the point is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology and equipment e.
The field of broadcasting includes both government-managed services such as public radio , community radio and public television , and private commercial radio and commercial television. The U. Code of Federal Regulations, title 47, part 97 defines "broadcasting" as "transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed". For example, amateur "ham" and citizens band CB radio operators are not allowed to broadcast. As defined, "transmitting" and "broadcasting" are not the same.
Transmission of radio and television programs from a radio or television station to home receivers by radio waves is referred to as "over the air" OTA or terrestrial broadcasting and in most countries requires a broadcasting license.
Transmissions using a wire or cable, like cable television which also retransmits OTA stations with their consent , are also considered broadcasts but do not necessarily require a license though in some countries, a license is required.
In the s, transmissions of television and radio programs via streaming digital technology have increasingly been referred to as broadcasting as well. The earliest broadcasting consisted of sending telegraph signals over the airwaves, using Morse code , a system developed in the s by Samuel F.
Morse , physicist Joseph Henry and Alfred Vail. They developed an electrical telegraph system which sent pulses of electric current along wires which controlled an electromagnet that was located at the receiving end of the telegraph system. A code was needed to transmit natural language using only these pulses, and the silence between them. Morse therefore developed the forerunner to modern International Morse code.
This was particularly important for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, but it became increasingly important for business and general news reporting, and as an arena for personal communication by radio amateurs Douglas, op.
Audio broadcasting began experimentally in the first decade of the 20th century. By the early s radio broadcasting became a household medium, at first on the AM band and later on FM. Satellite broadcasting was initiated in the s and moved into general industry usage in the s, with DBS Direct Broadcast Satellites emerging in the s.
Originally all broadcasting was composed of analog signals using analog transmission techniques but in the s, broadcasters have switched to digital signals using digital transmission.
In general usage, broadcasting most frequently refers to the transmission of information and entertainment programming from various sources to the general public. The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks more than quadrupled during the two decades from to , from exabytes of optimally compressed information, to 1. Historically, there have been several methods used for broadcasting electronic media audio and video to the general public:.
Broadcasters may rely on a combination of these business models. US public broadcasting corporate and charitable grants are generally given in consideration of underwriting spots which differ from commercial advertisements in that they are governed by specific FCC restrictions, which prohibit the advocacy of a product or a "call to action". The first regular television broadcasts started in Broadcasts can be classified as "recorded" or "live".
The former allows correcting errors, and removing superfluous or undesired material, rearranging it, applying slow-motion and repetitions, and other techniques to enhance the program.
American radio-network broadcasters habitually forbade prerecorded broadcasts in the s and s requiring radio programs played for the Eastern and Central time zones to be repeated three hours later for the Pacific time zone See: Effects of time on North American broadcasting.
This restriction was dropped for special occasions, as in the case of the German dirigible airship Hindenburg disaster at Lakehurst, New Jersey , in In addition, American radio programs were recorded for playback by Armed Forces Radio radio stations around the world.
A disadvantage of recording first is that the public may know the outcome of an event from another source, which may be a " spoiler ". In addition, prerecording prevents live radio announcers from deviating from an officially approved script , as occurred with propaganda broadcasts from Germany in the s and with Radio Moscow in the s.
Many events are advertised as being live, although they are often "recorded live" sometimes called " live -to- tape ". This is particularly true of performances of musical artists on radio when they visit for an in-studio concert performance. Similar situations have occurred in television production " The Cosby Show is recorded in front of a live television studio audience " and news broadcasting.
A broadcast may be distributed through several physical means. Programming may also come through a communications satellite , played either live or recorded for later transmission. Networks of stations may simulcast the same programming at the same time, originally via microwave link, now usually by satellite. Distribution to stations or networks may also be through physical media, such as magnetic tape , compact disc CD , DVD , and sometimes other formats.
Usually these are included in another broadcast, such as when electronic news gathering ENG returns a story to the station for inclusion on a news programme. The final leg of broadcast distribution is how the signal gets to the listener or viewer.
It may come over the air as with a radio station or television station to an antenna and radio receiver , or may come through cable television  or cable radio or " wireless cable " via the station or directly from a network. The Internet may also bring either internet radio or streaming media television to the recipient, especially with multicasting allowing the signal and bandwidth to be shared. The term " broadcast network " is often used to distinguish networks that broadcast an over-the-air television signals that can be received using a tuner television inside a television set with a television antenna from so-called networks that are broadcast only via cable television cablecast or satellite television that uses a dish antenna.
The term " broadcast television " can refer to the television programs of such networks. The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule. As with all technological endeavors, a number of technical terms and slang have developed. A list of these terms can be found at List of broadcasting terms. By coding signals and having a cable converter box with decoding equipment in homes , the latter also enables subscription -based channels, pay-tv and pay-per-view services.
In his essay, John Durham Peters wrote that communication is a tool used for dissemination. Durham stated, " Dissemination is a lens—sometimes a usefully distorting one—that helps us tackle basic issues such as interaction, presence, and space and time It is possible for the message to be changed or corrupted by government officials once the main source releases it.
There is no way to predetermine how the larger population or audience will absorb the message. They can choose to listen, analyze, or simply ignore it. Dissemination in communication is widely used in the world of broadcasting. Broadcasting focuses on getting a message out and it is up to the general public to do what they wish with it. Durham also states that broadcasting is used to address an open-ended destination Durham, There are many forms of broadcasting, but they all aim to distribute a signal that will reach the target audience.
Broadcasters typically arrange audiences into entire assemblies Durham, In terms of media broadcasting, a radio show can gather a large number of followers who tune in every day to specifically listen to that specific disc jockey. The disc jockey follows the script for his or her radio show and just talks into the microphone.
The message is broadcast across airwaves throughout the community, but there the listeners cannot always respond immediately, especially since many radio shows are recorded prior to the actual air time. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Broadcast disambiguation. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: History of broadcasting.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Speaking into the Air. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 11 November Inventing American Broadcasting, — Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to 'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 16 November Lichty Lawrence W.
Meyrowitz, Joshua. Perspectives on Theory. Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage, Thompson, J. Broadcast designer Broadcast license Broadcast network Broadcast-safe Broadcast television systems Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Network affiliate News ticker On-screen display Outside broadcasting Press box Press pool Score bug Television news screen layout Television licence Television studio.
Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication optical fiber Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves wireless Transmission line data transmission circuit telecommunication circuit. Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division. Category Outline Portal Commons. Analog and digital audio broadcasting. C band K u band L band S band. Audio data compression Audio signal processing. History of radio International broadcasting.
Comparison of radio systems. Communication studies.
Cord cutters rejoice! ATSC 3. Don't be surprised to see other manufacturers follow suit. Like current over-the-air TV broadcasts -- and unlike cable, satellite or live TV streaming -- it will be free.
UHF television broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium , but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum radio waves , in a one-to-many model. Before this, all forms of electronic communication early radio , telephone , and telegraph were one-to-one , with the message intended for a single recipient. The term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. Over the air broadcasting is usually associated with radio and television , though in recent years, both radio and television transmissions have begun to be distributed by cable cable television.
SIC Code 3663 - Radio and Television Broadcasting and Communications Equipment
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Established in the industry for over 40 years, Lintec Antennas have built up an enviable reputation for the design and manufacturing of specialist antennas. We are the preferred supplier to many prestigious names across a varied spectrum of industries, including Radio Communications, Animal Tracking and Fire and Security Alarms, and have also designed and developed specialist antennas for the Aeronautical and Marine industries. At Lintec Antennas we are commited to quality, both in providing our clients with exceptional products service and in continually expanding and improving the range of specialist antennas that we offer. We are currently in the process of gaining ISO accreditiation in order that our current and future clients can be assured of our current and continued commitment to excellence. Lintec Antennas were established in to design and manufacture high quality marine antennas, which were in high demand by Italian boat builders due their outstanding performance and appearance. This then led onto the devlopment of an HF direction finder for use on all types of sea-going vessels; this was adopted by STC Marine for use on their equipment. An antenna system developed for use in distress beacons and life jackets was widely used by both commerical airlines and the military and thousands of these antenna are still is use today; testament to both their reliability and performance. Developments within the sound broadcasting field were also made, with many manufacturers of sound broadcast equipment using Lintec's products, as well as most of the major UK broadcasters BBC, ITV, Channel4 Racing.
Broadcast Antennas Suppliers
Antenna design and interfaces are some of the most varied and difficult topics to cover in any one venue, whether it be a book, application note, or classroom session. Unless you are operating in a fully controlled environment such as an anechoic chamber, the presence of multipath alone can break even the best antenna design. The aforementioned amplifier and filters and most other RF components have the luxury of performing their individual functions from within the protective safety of some sort of shield from outside influences.
The NIIR has considerably contributed into development of advanced info-communication technologies; the NIIR specialists perform up-to-date studies and develop advanced radio equipment and implement telecommunication projects. Design and implementation of federal-wide systems and regional networks of digital broadcasting;. Development of on-board repeaters and terrestrial stations for satellite communication and broadcasting systems;. Research and technical support of international activities of the Russian communications Administration. The Institute pays a lot of attention to the strengthening of the laboratory and production base, and their technological modernization. Automated system for project management is being built. The enterprise is also included into the registry of single suppliers of some military products. Accordingly, substantial part of the enterprise activity is related to a provision of national defense production. One of the important activity lines is designing, manufacturing and testing of satellite communications, on-board repeaters. In this market one can observe processes of amalgamation of international corporations dealing with communication satellites, orbital delivery vehicles, ground auxiliary equipment, and satellite communication and TV broadcasting operators. As a result of this international cooperation, the NIIR has implemented modern technologies in the field of payload designing, assembling and testing.
REMO is one of the largest manufacturer and exporter of digital and analog TV and general communications antennas and accessories in Russia. We provide the finest quality and best pricing because do all our own tooling and manufacturing. We also engineer and custom-manufactured antennas and accessories for private TV and data systems. REMO is increasingly becoming the TV antenna supplier of choice for users outside of Russia as our reputation grows in the marketplace for quality and performance. We are the experts on television and communications antennas. Since we have been designing and manufacturing quality antennas for TV reception and data transport. We take pride in providing the finest quality products and accessories. In fact, our management personnel personally oversee production to assure that REMO remains the name to ask for when it comes to TV and general communications antennas. Our BAS line of indoor TV antennas is founded on a plug-and-play approach based on a proprietary design that ensures optimal indoor reception in virtually any location.
Established Nippon Antenna Co. Began manufacturing and selling car radio and TV antennas. Began manufacturing and selling electronic equipment and radio communications antennas. Established Merlin Aerials Ltd. Began developing, manufacturing and selling portable phone antennas. Established Nippon Antenna Philippines , Inc. Began developing, manufacturing and selling 3 wave broadband car roof amplifier antennas. Acquired ISO certification for electronic equipment. Acquired QS certification for automobiles.
Commercial Products and Applications
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Our TACO Antenna brand manufactures communication antennas for use by military organizations, defence contractors, and commercial aviation systems worldwide. Our engineering capability and overall responsiveness have made us a leader in the development and manufacture of high quality communication antennas. Our products have a strong reputation for ruggedness and reliability. With progressive leadership that emphasizes customer service through sales, marketing, research and innovation, WADE and TACO deliver unrivalled service and satisfaction alongside leading edge technology.
If you are one of the 72 million Americans who rely on an antenna to watch free, over-the-air television, you'll need to rescan your television set or converter box anytime after your local stations move frequencies. Rescanning is when your TV finds all of the available channels in your area.
Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing radio and television broadcasting and communications equipment. Important products of this industry are closed-circuit and cable television equipment; studio equipment; light communications equipment; transmitters, transceivers and receivers except household and automotive ; cellular radio telephones; communication antennas; receivers; RF power amplifiers; and fixed and mobile radio systems. There are 1, companies classified in this industry in the USA with an estimated employment of 20, people.