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- The Project Gutenberg eBook, Aviation Engines, by Victor Wilfred Pagé
- Wankel engine
- STEYR MOTORS
- Man invents electric car battery that lasts 1,500 miles when charged
- generator exhaust flex pipe
- Henry Meadows
- The Project Gutenberg eBook, Aviation Engines, by Victor Wilfred Pagé
- D. Napier & Son
- 7 things you may not know about new car warranties
The Project Gutenberg eBook, Aviation Engines, by Victor Wilfred PagéVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Automotive Parts Manufacturer
The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into rotating motion. All parts rotate in one direction, as opposed to the common reciprocating piston engine, which has pistons instantly and rapidly changing direction degrees.
In contrast to the reciprocating piston designs, the Wankel engine delivers advantages of simplicity, smoothness, compactness, high revolutions per minute , and a high power-to-weight ratio. The core of the Wankel engine is the rotor, which creates the turning motion. It is similar in shape to a Reuleaux triangle with the sides somewhat flatter. Wankel engines deliver three power pulses per revolution of the rotor using the Otto cycle.
However the output shaft, because of its toothed gearing to the rotor, turns three times faster giving one power pulse per revolution at its output. The result is that the rotor turns much slower than the output shaft, at one third of its speed.
This can be seen in the animation below. The rotor in one revolution will be giving power pulses and exhausting simultaneously, while the four stages of the Otto cycle occur at separate times.
For comparison, in a two-stroke piston engine there is one power pulse per crankshaft revolution, the same as a Wankel engine's output shaft, with one in two revolutions in a four-stroke piston engine. The four-stage Otto cycle of intake, compression, ignition, and exhaust occurs each revolution of the rotor at each of the three rotor faces moving inside the oval-like epitrochoid -shaped housing, enabling the three power pulses per rotor revolution.
Displacement measurement measures only one face of the rotor, since only one face is working for each output shaft revolution. The engine is commonly referred to as a rotary engine , although this name is also applied to other completely different designs, including both pistoned and pistonless rotary engines. The design was conceived by German engineer Felix Wankel. Wankel received his first patent for the engine in He began development in the early s at NSU , completing a working prototype in The Wankel engine has the advantages of compact design and low weight over the most commonly used internal combustion engine employing reciprocating pistons.
These advantages have given rotary engine applications in a variety of vehicles and devices, including: automobiles , motorcycles , racing cars , aircraft , go-karts , jet skis , snowmobiles , chainsaws , and auxiliary power units. The power-to-weight ratio has reached over one horsepower per pound in certain engines. In the Wankel engine, the four strokes of an Otto cycle occur in the space between each face of a three-sided symmetric rotor and the inside of a housing. The oval-like epitrochoid -shaped housing surrounds a triangular rotor with bow-shaped faces similar in appearance to a Reuleaux triangle.
The central drive shaft, called the "eccentric shaft" or "E-shaft", passes through the center of the rotor being supported by fixed bearings. The rotors both rotate around the eccentrics and make orbital revolutions around the eccentric shaft. Seals at the apexes of the rotor seal against the periphery of the housing, dividing it into three moving combustion chambers. The power output of the engine is not transmitted through the synchronizing gears.
The force of expanded gas pressure on the rotor exerts pressure to the centre of the eccentric part of the output shaft. The easiest way to visualize the action of the engine in the animation is to look not at the rotor itself, but the cavity created between it and the housing.
The Wankel engine is actually a variable-volume progressing-cavity system. Thus, there are three cavities per housing, all repeating the same cycle. Points A and B on the rotor and E-shaft turn at different speeds—point B circles three times as often as point A does, so that one full orbit of the rotor equates to three turns of the E-shaft. As the rotor rotates orbitally revolving, each side of the rotor is brought closer to and then away from the wall of the housing, compressing and expanding the combustion chamber like the strokes of a piston in a reciprocating piston engine.
The power vector of the combustion stage goes through the center of the offset lobe. While a four-stroke piston engine completes one combustion stroke per cylinder for every two rotations of the crankshaft that is, one-half power stroke per crankshaft rotation per cylinder , each combustion chamber in the Wankel generates one combustion stroke per driveshaft rotation, i. Thus, the power output of a Wankel engine is generally higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar engine displacement in a similar state of tune; and higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar physical dimensions and weight.
Wankel engines generally are able to reach much higher engine revolutions than reciprocating engines of similar power output. This is due partly to the smoothness inherent in circular motion, and the fact that the "engine" rpm is of the output shaft which is 3 times faster than that of the oscillating parts. The eccentric shafts do not have the stress related contours of crankshafts. The maximum revolutions of a rotary engine is limited by tooth load on the synchronizing gears.
However, as gas pressure participates in seal efficiency, racing a Wankel engine at high rpm under no load conditions can destroy the engine. National agencies that tax automobiles according to displacement and regulatory bodies in automobile racing variously consider the Wankel engine to be equivalent to a four-stroke piston engine of 1.
Some racing series have banned the Wankel altogether, along with all other alternatives to the traditional reciprocating piston four-stroke design due to the perceived advantages of the design in racing applications. The basis of the DKM type of motor was that both the rotor and the housing spun around on separate axes.
The DKM motor reached higher revolutions per minute and was more naturally balanced. However, the engine needed to be stripped to change the spark plugs and contained more parts.
The KKM engine was simpler, having a fixed housing. NSU was to concentrate on low and medium-powered Wankel engine development with Curtiss-Wright developing high-powered engines, including aircraft engines of which Curtiss-Wright had decades of experience designing and producing. Many manufacturers signed license agreements for development, attracted by the smoothness, quiet running, and reliability emanating from the uncomplicated design.
General Motors seemed to have concluded the Wankel engine was slightly more expensive to build than an equivalent reciprocating engine.
General Motors claimed to have solved the fuel economy issue, but failed in obtaining in a concomitant way to acceptable exhaust emissions. Mercedes-Benz fitted a Wankel engine in their C concept car. The design was proposed as the power source for United States Marine Corps combat vehicles and other equipment in the late s. By mid-September , even Wankel model engines became available through the German Graupner aeromodeling products firm, made for them by O. Engines of Japan.
Despite much research and development throughout the world, only Mazda has produced Wankel engines in large quantities. This two-rotor engine was included in the Commander and F1.
Norton improved on the Sachs's air cooling, introducing a plenum chamber. Suzuki also made a production motorcycle powered by a Wankel engine, the RE-5 , using ferro TiC alloy apex seals and an NSU rotor in a successful attempt to prolong the engine's life. Mazda and NSU signed a study contract to develop the Wankel engine in and competed to bring the first Wankel-powered automobile to market. NSU had problems with apex seals' wear, poor shaft lubrication, and poor fuel economy, leading to frequent engine failures, not solved until , which led to large warranty costs curtailing further NSU Wankel engine development.
This premature release of the new Wankel engine gave a poor reputation for all makes and even when these issues were solved in the last engines produced by NSU in the second half of the '70s, sales did not recover. The engine was installed in an Audi hull named "Audi ", but was not mass-produced. Mazda, however, claimed to have solved the apex seal problem operating test engines at high speed for hours without failure.
The company followed with a number of Wankel "rotary" in the company's terminology vehicles, including a bus and a pickup truck. Customers often cited the cars' smoothness of operation. However, Mazda chose a method to comply with hydrocarbon emission standards that, while less expensive to produce, increased fuel consumption. Unfortunately for Mazda, this was introduced immediately prior to a sharp rise in fuel prices. Curtiss-Wright produced the RC engine which was comparable to a V8 engine in performance and fuel consumption.
Mazda later abandoned the Wankel in most of their automotive designs, continuing to use the engine in their sports car range only, producing the RX-7 until August The company normally used two-rotor designs. A more advanced twin- turbo three-rotor engine was fitted in the Eunos Cosmo sports car. In , Mazda introduced the Renesis engine fitted in the RX The Renesis engine relocated the ports for exhaust from the periphery of the rotary housing to the sides, allowing for larger overall ports, better airflow, and further power gains.
Some early Wankel engines had also side exhaust ports, the concept being abandoned because of carbon buildup in ports and the sides of the rotor. The Renesis engine solved the problem by using a keystone scraper side seal, and approached the thermal distortion difficulties by adding some parts made of ceramics.
However, this was not enough to meet more stringent emissions standards. Mazda ended production of their Wankel engine in after the engine failed to meet the improved Euro 5 emission standards , leaving no automotive company selling a Wankel-powered vehicle.
Mazda states that the SkyActiv-R solves the three key issues with previous rotary engines: fuel economy, emissions and reliability. Chapin Jr. However, Gerald C. Meyers , AMC's vice president of the engineering product group, suggested that AMC should buy the engines from Curtiss-Wright before developing its own Wankel engines, and predicted a total transition to rotary power by The oil crisis played a part in frustrating the uptake of the Wankel engine.
Rising fuel prices and talk about proposed US emission standards legislation also added to concerns. Those findings were not taken into account when the cancellation order was issued. Most of the production went to the security services.
A rotary version of the Samara was sold to Russian public from Aviadvigatel , the Soviet aircraft engine design bureau, is known to have produced Wankel engines with electronic injection for aircraft and helicopters, though little specific information has surfaced.
In , Henry Ford II stated that the rotary probably won't replace the piston in "my lifetime". Felix Wankel managed to overcome most of the problems that made previous rotary engines fail by developing a configuration with vane seals having a tip radius equal to the amount of "oversize" of the rotor housing form, as compared to the theoretical epitrochoid, to minimize radial apex seal motion plus introducing a cylindrical gas-loaded apex pin which abutted all sealing elements to seal around the three planes at each rotor apex.
In the early days, special, dedicated production machines had to be built for different housing dimensional arrangements. However, patented design such as U. Patent 3,, , G. Patent 3,, , "Device for machining trochoidal inner walls", and others, solved the problem.
Rotary engines have a problem not found in reciprocating piston four-stroke engines in that the block housing has intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust occurring at fixed locations around the housing. In contrast, reciprocating engines perform these four strokes in one chamber, so that extremes of "freezing" intake and "flaming" exhaust are averaged and shielded by a boundary layer from overheating working parts. The use of heat pipes in an air-cooled Wankel was proposed by the University of Florida to overcome this uneven heating of the block housing.
This gives a more constant surface temperature. The temperature around the spark plug is about the same as the temperature in the combustion chamber of a reciprocating engine. With circumferential or axial flow cooling, the temperature difference remains tolerable.
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The objective of the Japanese Standards Association - JSA - is "to educate the public regarding the standardization and unification of industrial standards, and thereby to contribute to the improvement of technology and the enhancement of production efficiency". Standards are named like "JIS X ", where X denotes area division, followed by four digits or five digits for some of the standards corresponding ISO standards , and the revision release year. Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro. We don't collect information from our users. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience.
Imagine the satisfaction of driving your environmentally friendly electric car for 1, miles without having to stop to recharge the battery — a distance more than four times as far as the best and most expensive model currently on the road. Under the bonnet is a revolutionary new type of battery which, unlike those used in conventional electric cars, can also power buses, huge lorries and even aircraft. What's more, it's far simpler and cheaper to make than the batteries currently in use in millions of electric vehicles around the world — and, unlike them, it can easily be recycled. This might sound like a science-fiction fantasy. But it's not. Last Friday, the battery's inventor, British engineer and former Royal Navy officer Trevor Jackson, signed a multi-million-pound deal to start manufacturing the device on a large scale in the UK.
We are all familiar with the advantages of high-speed engines. Watch the benefits multiply. Disclaimer: Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this publication is correct, the Author and Publisher accept no liability to any party for any inaccuracies that may occur. Any third party material included with the publication is supplied in good faith and the Publisher accepts no liability in respect of content. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any electronic medium or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner. Our innovative dual-fuel LPG engine lets you de-risk shipbuilding investments and take back control. By switching to LPG, you stay compliant while retaining the flexibility to take advantage of optimal fuel prices in the future. LPG also offers lower total cost of ownership, giving you a valuable edge in a competitive market. Power into the future with confidence.
Man invents electric car battery that lasts 1,500 miles when charged
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The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into rotating motion. All parts rotate in one direction, as opposed to the common reciprocating piston engine, which has pistons instantly and rapidly changing direction degrees. In contrast to the reciprocating piston designs, the Wankel engine delivers advantages of simplicity, smoothness, compactness, high revolutions per minute , and a high power-to-weight ratio. The core of the Wankel engine is the rotor, which creates the turning motion. It is similar in shape to a Reuleaux triangle with the sides somewhat flatter. Wankel engines deliver three power pulses per revolution of the rotor using the Otto cycle. However the output shaft, because of its toothed gearing to the rotor, turns three times faster giving one power pulse per revolution at its output. The result is that the rotor turns much slower than the output shaft, at one third of its speed. This can be seen in the animation below. The rotor in one revolution will be giving power pulses and exhausting simultaneously, while the four stages of the Otto cycle occur at separate times.
The Project Gutenberg eBook, Aviation Engines, by Victor Wilfred Pagé
Napier was founded as a precision engineering company in and for nearly a century produced machinery for the financial, print and munitions industries. In the early 20th century it moved for a time into internal combustion engines and road vehicles before turning to aero engines. Many world speed records on land and water, as well as the Hawker Typhoon and Tempest fighter planes, were powered by Napier engines. During the Second World War the company was taken over by English Electric , and engine manufacture eventually ceased.
D. Napier & Son
Менее же удачные работы ожидала судьба всех таких произведений. Они либо распылялись на свои составляющие, либо в конце концов находили себе приют в домах друзей художника. На всем своем пути Олвину встретилось лишь одно objet d'аrt, которое ему более или менее пришлось по душе.
7 things you may not know about new car warranties
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