While some may claim that direct-current DC motors are no longer relevant, that is definitely not the case. Alternating-current AC motors have certainly decreased DC motor sales, and they do confer advantages in some applications. Understanding the differences between AC and DC motors reveals where each works best and helps guide selection and specification. The basic operation of all these designs is similar. A current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, and applying power through these conductors causes motor rotation.
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- Electric Motors
- Magnetic Coil Winding Machine
- DC Machine: Construction and their Applications
- The DC Motor Advantage
- Industrial Motors And Generators - Types, Applications And Manufacturers
- Electric machine
- Magnetic Coil Winding Machine
- Introductory Chapter: Introduction to the Design and the Control of Electrical Machines
Electric MotorsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Electric Motor Manufacture (Discovery Channel).mpg
Create citation alert. Buy this article in print. Journal RSS feed. Sign up for new issue notifications. Superconducting technology applications in electric machines have long been pursued due to their significant advantages of higher efficiency and power density over conventional technology. However, in spite of many successful technology demonstrations, commercial adoption has been slow, presumably because the threshold for value versus cost and technology risk has not yet been crossed.
One likely path for disruptive superconducting technology in commercial products could be in applications where its advantages become key enablers for systems which are not practical with conventional technology. To help systems engineers assess the viability of such future solutions, we present a technology roadmap for superconducting machines.
Future projections, by definition, are based on the judgment of specialists, and can be subjective. Attempts have been made to obtain input from a broad set of organizations for an inclusive opinion.
Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author s and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. The first task was to understand the state-of-the-art. Information related to key performance metrics has been collected and described qualitatively in the first two sections of this paper. Key metrics of known machines are summarized in the appendix , with details available in the references cited.
This information was then taken as the baseline to project potential advances and estimate improvements in the key performance metrics over the next few years. Ongoing technology efforts, expected progress, and any known timelines served as inputs. Advances in enabling technologies, such as conductors and cryocoolers, and their impact on machine performance in the opinion of experts were also captured. These are compiled and reported in the later sections. Two specific applications served as motivation for this roadmap exercise and provide a focus for the technical discussions: future electric airplanes and large offshore wind turbines.
Key requirements of the former include high power density and high efficiency. Requirements for the latter include high torque density, efficiency and low cost. These are features traditionally associated with superconducting machines—and make them an attractive technology option to consider. Many other applications are being pursued by a number of research groups, and these may have their own unique requirements and trade-offs, but we believe much of the discussion in this document could apply broadly where size and weight are a consideration.
NASA's Fixed Wing Project currently the Advanced Air-Transport Technology Project has defined goals for the next three generations of aircraft for commercial aviation in four key areas of reducing noise, fuel burn, emissions and field length [ 1 ].
Table 1. NASA subsonic transport system-level metrics [ 1 ]. One approach proposed by NASA being explored by various groups is turboelectric distributed propulsion [ 1 — 3 ].
This is accomplished by using an electrical drive system that decouples the power-producing parts of the system from the thrust-producing parts. Fifteen electric-motor driven turbofans were located in a continuous nacelle to maximize the amount of boundary layer ingested by the system. Two large turbo-generators that produce the power to run the fans were located at the wing tips, where they would receive undisturbed freestream air. Figure 1. Schematic of a turboelectric propulsion system, highlighting required electrical machines.
Reproduced with permission from [ 1 ]. A key technology gap in bringing this concept to practice is the availability of flight-weight motors, generators and transmission lines. The assumptions made in system-level studies of these concepts could serve as the initial requirements for motor and generator technology to make the electrification of large commercial aviation feasible.
The ultimate requirements would be finalized through an iterative process based on available component-level technologies and system-level trade-offs. Table 2 gives motor and generator ratings and design goals that have been extracted from the above studies to serve as a baseline for superconducting machine technology assessment.
Table 2. Electrical machine requirements for an example turboelectric-aircraft concept [ 1 ]. The industry is also considering other opportunities for inserting electrical propulsion technologies into airplanes. A recent study focused on a single-aisle turboelectric commercial transport with fuselage boundary layer ingestion [ 4 ] designed for passengers with a nautical mile range, at a cruise speed of Mach 0.
This airplane design, as shown in figure 2 , calls for a 2. Figure 2. Single-aisle turboelectric commercial transport with fuselage boundary layer ingestion. Reproduced with permission from [ 4 ]. Airbus, along with partners Rolls-Royce and Cranfield University, has announced plans for an electrically distributed propulsion system concept, the 'E-Thrust', for a regional aircraft approximately 90 seats and two hours flight time [ — ].
This concept utilizes a distributed propulsion system with six electric fans distributed along the wing span. One gas-powered generator provides electrical power for the six fans and for recharging the batteries. With this arrangement, an effective by-pass ratio of over 20 is achievable, leading to significant reductions in fuel consumption and emissions.
In summary, high power density electrical motors and generators at the MW scale are key enablers for future electric aircraft. The above referenced system configurations can serve as the initial specifications for electric machine development.
Final ratings will be found through an iterative process between component-level and system-level technology advancement. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recently released a report highlighting electrical-system component requirements for a broad range of hybrid and electric propulsion systems [ 5 ].
Table 3 summarizes key target metrics to make these systems viable. Table 3. Electrical-system component performance requirements for parallel hybrid, all-electric and turboelectric propulsion systems [ 5 ]. It is a general trend that superconducting rotating machines are more likely to be commercially viable at large sizes and powers because the necessary added cryogenic subsystem then becomes a smaller portion of the total machine weight and cost.
For wind power generators, larger power generators are almost always employed in offshore turbines. There are some advantages for offshore wind generation: the wind blows more steadily near the coast where there is a higher population, reducing transmission costs, and the land offshore is usually cheaper than on the coast. However, there is added outlay for placing wind generation offshore—the towers and platforms are much more expensive to build, and the electricity must be taken to shore by underwater cable systems.
For onshore wind, almost all generation is by generators connected via gearboxes to the blades and hence turning much faster, which reduces their size and weight considerably. For offshore wind, the difficulty of maintenance has encouraged manufacturers to use direct-drive generators to avoid gearbox maintenance.
This greatly increases the generator size and torque loads at their slow tuning speeds e. Thus, it is size and weight reduction that is potentially offered by superconducting direct-drive generators, making them appealing for offshore wind. Present offshore direct-drive generators use permanent magnet PM rotors in power ratings to 8 MW. Currently, world offshore wind capacity is about 12 GW, most of which is in northern Europe. Market projections indicate that the cumulative offshore capacity will rise to 29 GW by [ 7 ].
Producing a superconducting offshore direct-drive generator is likely to be an expensive proposition for any manufacturer, since it would be a very new machine with many high-risk items. Hence, two factors figure strongly in any decision to do so: the calculated benefits of such a machine on the wind levelized cost of energy LCOE and the non-recurring engineering NRE costs for developing a very new machine type such as superconducting, which is likely to be higher than that for an extension of an existing machine type.
This NRE must be paid back by the projected sales and market size for the new machine. A further consideration is the prototyping and testing necessary to prove reliability for market acceptance of a new technology. The winning commercial equipment for wind electricity generation is decided by the LCOE generated by that equipment.
Calculations of COE can be quite complex, but certain factors are apparent. First, the generator is only one piece of equipment among many in the overall wind generation system; towers, foundations, blades, power transmission, and installation are also very important. Therefore, any superconducting wind generator can only succeed when it compares favourably to all the other options e.
Generator factors important in this comparison are: costs associated with capital, operation and maintenance, installation, and reliability. Size and weight reductions in superconducting generators may have benefits in reduced tower, foundation, or transportation costs. As stated above, superconducting generators are more likely to be competitive at high powers such as those which are used offshore.
However, they must succeed in total COE comparisons to win. As will be seen from the following sections, it is clear that superconducting machines hold great promise for extreme reduction in machine size and weight. Risks must be reduced and technology readiness level TRL advanced, especially for some of the more aggressive designs such as fully superconducting machines and high-field air-core topologies, before they are ready for system integration.
As described earlier, a number of approaches can lead to even higher specific power and efficiency than is possible today. For the promised benefits of superconducting machines to be achieved, further progress must be made in:. Figure 3 illustrates how one of the key metrics, the specific torque, has increased over the last couple of decades, and how it can be advanced further with some of the technologies being pursued. The reference designs are listed in the appendix.
The projected timeline is an estimate assuming ongoing programs proceed to technology demonstrations. While specific torque is a proxy for specific power, and a metric closely related to the electromagnetic capability of the machine, trade-offs will have to be made in high-speed machines to meet and exceed the high specific power requirements summarized in table 3.
Superconductor technology has been amply demonstrated in many rotating machine applications—both small and large in sizes and ratings.
Save for reliability data, all demonstration projects have achieved their stated goals. However, each application has its own specific requirements.
For example, electric utility and industrial applications value low product cost, high efficiency and reliability. On the other hand, defence application attributes include compact size and low mass, high reliability and affordable cost. Adoption of this technology is not free of challenges.
The most significant could be from currently used technologies, which are also improving by the employment of more advanced materials and manufacturing.
Introduction of superconductor technology also requires the absorption of NRE costs, which may present a significant challenge. Early adopters will be in areas that are beyond the capabilities of current technologies, as magnetic resonance imaging MRI magnets have been.
For example, all-electric planes would require very high specific power density motors and generators. Superconductor technology could be attractive if available at an affordable cost and acceptable reliability.
For the past 50 years, Hyosung Heavy Industries has been playing a leading role in the Korean power transmission and distribution industry by supplying transformers, circuit breakers, and electrical units. It was also able to emerge as a global leader in the area of heavy electric machines -- one of the core energy components -- based on decades of experience in the Korean market. Hyosung Heavy Industries is strengthening the competitiveness of not only the transmission and distribution business but also its power automation and smart grid businesses based on power IT such as power monitoring and control systems and prevention and diagnosis systems in order to cope with the changes in the urban environment where the latest smart technologies are being applied. Hyosung Heavy Industries plays a leading role in the area of green technology by supplying power generation systems for environment-friendly new renewable energy such as ESS, solar inverters, and solar EPC and wind power systems. The high-quality products made by Hyosung Heavy Industries are used in the steel, petrochemical, cement, wind power generation, hydroelectric power, thermal power, sea power, nuclear power, shipbuilding, mining, and defense industries.
Magnetic Coil Winding Machine
More than million electric motors are used in infrastructure, large buildings and in industries globally. Over 30 million motors are sold each year for industrial purposes alone. At a time when talk has shifted to emission reduction, electric motor manufacturers have been innovating and disrupting the global marketplace. With so much demand for electric motors, many products are thriving. For example, growth is accelerating in the synchronous electric motors market, which can expect an increase of several billion dollars by From building technologies and automation equipment for manufacturers and construction companies to imaging and diagnostic systems for hospitals and electric motors for industrial and mobility purposes , Siemens seems to be everywhere. The company aims to redesign electric motor technology from the ground up for use in electric vehicles.
DC Machine: Construction and their Applications
The conversion of this mechanism is known as the commutator, thus these machines are also named as commutating machines. DC machine is most frequently used for a motor. The main benefits of this machine include torque regulation as well as easy speed. The applications of the DC machine is limited to trains, mills, and mines. As examples, underground subway cars, as well as trolleys, may utilize DC motors. In the past, automobiles were designed with DC dynamos for charging their batteries. A DC machine is an electromechanical energy alteration device.
In electrical engineering , electric machine is a general term for machines using electromagnetic forces , such as electric motors , electric generators , and others. They are electromechanical energy converters: an electric motor converts electricity to mechanical power while an electric generator converts mechanical power to electricity. The moving parts in a machine can be rotating rotating machines or linear linear machines. Besides motors and generators, a third category often included is transformers , which although they do not have any moving parts are also energy converters, changing the voltage level of an alternating current. Electric machines were developed beginning in the mid 19th century and since that time have been a ubiquitous component of the infrastructure. Developing more efficient electric machine technology is crucial to any global conservation, green energy , or alternative energy strategy. An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electrons to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. The source of mechanical energy, the prime mover , may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine , water falling through a turbine or waterwheel , an internal combustion engine , a wind turbine , a hand crank , compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy.
The DC Motor Advantage
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Magnetic Coil Winding Machine. Adams-Maxwell Coil Winders are American made Coil Winding machines, built with the highest quality components since Both odd and even slot numbers are included. Horizontal Tensioner, Magnetic Tensioner, Tensioner 0. Brushless DC Motors K. In a DC generator, when the coil placed in the magnetic field is rotated by means of a prime mover or any handle. This machine is a kind of fine new full automatic coil winding machine, it actualized automation from loading, winding and producing The magnetic coil processed by this machine are used for network filter, subminiature magnetic coil inductance, inductance IC etc, its characteristics as following: 1. It has some good ideas--especially the friction wheel, because it can be varied easily to create the ratio needed to wind a universal coil. In this winding, the coil side is not connected back but progresses forward to another coil sides. Np is the number of turns of wire on the primary coil.
Industrial Motors And Generators - Types, Applications And Manufacturers
Electrical Discharge Machining, EDM is one of the most accurate manufacturing processes available for creating complex or simple shapes and geometries within parts and assemblies. EDM works by eroding material in the path of electrical discharges that form an arc between an electrode tool and the work piece. EDM manufacturing is quite affordable and a very desirable manufacturing process when low counts or high accuracy is required. Turn around time can be fast and depends on manufacturer back log. The EDM system consists of a shaped tool or wire electrode, and the part. The part is connected to a power supply. Sometimes to create a potential difference between the work piece and tool, the work piece is immersed in a dielectric electrically non conducting fluid which is circulated to flush away debris.
Thank you for your interest in publishing an article with Packaging-Labelling. Our client success team member will get in touch with you shortly to take this ahead. While you're here, check out our high-quality and insightful articles. Happy Reading! Mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy by a generator, whereas the motor does the opposite. It converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Magnetic Coil Winding Machine
FLANDERS has engineered significant breakthroughs in industrial electric motor technology based on over 70 years of experience troubleshooting, repairing, and rebuilding them. These application-specific motors also feature design improvements to address common points of failure in a given machine.
Introductory Chapter: Introduction to the Design and the Control of Electrical Machines
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There are several key differences between AC motors and DC motors, besides the obvious one that relates to how each of these components is powered. Below is a brief presentation of what each of these types of motors is, followed by a summary of the differences between them.