Efficiency fully automatic loading and unloading operation suitable for medium to long series manufacturing. More and more fabricators are facing a situation, where big volumes are replaced by the need to produce small batches on a just-in time basis. In traditional bending with press brakes, set-up times, technical limits in producing sophisticated components and the requirement for skilled personnel may prove problematic in such manufacturing tasks. Basing on extensive experience applying servo-electric technology in automatic panel-bending solutions, Prima Power offers a fully automated solution.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
- Donate a solar lamp this festive season
- Electrical Equipment
- Electrical & Electronic Engineering: Business
- Mine Electrical Systems
- Punching Forces
- Company Newsletter
- Electric Machines
- High power density superconducting rotating machines—development status and technology roadmap
- Power Electronics and Power Systems
Donate a solar lamp this festive seasonVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: The Fabrication and Assembly of an 8.5MW Francis Turbine at Ebco Industries
A transformer is a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to one or more circuits. A varying current in any one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux , which, in turn, induces a varying electromotive force across any other coils wound around the same core.
Electrical energy can be transferred between the possibly many coils, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday's law of induction discovered in described the induced voltage effect in any coil due to changing magnetic flux encircled by the coil.
Transformers are used for increasing alternating voltages at low current Step Up Transformer or decreasing the alternating voltages at high current Step Down Transformer in electric power applications, and for coupling the stages of signal processing circuits. Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in , transformers have become essential for the transmission , distribution , and utilization of alternating current electric power.
Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimeter in volume, to units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect the power grid. By law of conservation of energy , apparent , real and reactive power are each conserved in the input and output:. Combining eq. By Ohm's law and ideal transformer identity:. An ideal transformer is a theoretical linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled. Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductances and zero net magnetomotive force i.
A varying current in the transformer's primary winding attempts to create a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core, which is also encircled by the secondary winding. This varying flux at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force EMF, voltage in the secondary winding due to electromagnetic induction and the secondary current so produced creates a flux equal and opposite to that produced by the primary winding, in accordance with Lenz's law.
The windings are wound around a core of infinitely high magnetic permeability so that all of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings.
With a voltage source connected to the primary winding and a load connected to the secondary winding, the transformer currents flow in the indicated directions and the core magnetomotive force cancels to zero.
According to Faraday's law , since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings in an ideal transformer, a voltage is induced in each winding proportional to its number of windings. The transformer winding voltage ratio is directly proportional to the winding turns ratio. The ideal transformer identity shown in eq.
The load impedance referred to the primary circuit is equal to the turns ratio squared times the secondary circuit load impedance. Three kinds of parasitic capacitance are usually considered and the closed-loop equations are provided .
However, the capacitance effect can be measured by comparing open-circuit inductance, i. The ideal transformer model assumes that all flux generated by the primary winding links all the turns of every winding, including itself. In practice, some flux traverses paths that take it outside the windings.
It is not directly a power loss, but results in inferior voltage regulation , causing the secondary voltage not to be directly proportional to the primary voltage, particularly under heavy load. In some applications increased leakage is desired, and long magnetic paths, air gaps, or magnetic bypass shunts may deliberately be introduced in a transformer design to limit the short-circuit current it will supply.
Air gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating, especially audio-frequency transformers in circuits that have a DC component flowing in the windings.
Knowledge of leakage inductance is also useful when transformers are operated in parallel. However, the impedance tolerances of commercial transformers are significant. Referring to the diagram, a practical transformer's physical behavior may be represented by an equivalent circuit model, which can incorporate an ideal transformer.
Winding joule losses and leakage reactances are represented by the following series loop impedances of the model:. R C and X M are collectively termed the magnetizing branch of the model. Core losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the core and are proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given frequency. Magnetizing current is in phase with the flux, the relationship between the two being non-linear due to saturation effects.
However, all impedances of the equivalent circuit shown are by definition linear and such non-linearity effects are not typically reflected in transformer equivalent circuits.
With open-circuited secondary winding, magnetizing branch current I 0 equals transformer no-load current. The resulting model, though sometimes termed 'exact' equivalent circuit based on linearity assumptions, retains a number of approximations. This introduces error but allows combination of primary and referred secondary resistances and reactances by simple summation as two series impedances.
Transformer equivalent circuit impedance and transformer ratio parameters can be derived from the following tests: open-circuit test , short-circuit test , winding resistance test, and transformer ratio test.
A dot convention is often used in transformer circuit diagrams, nameplates or terminal markings to define the relative polarity of transformer windings. Three-phase transformers used in electric power systems will have a nameplate that indicate the phase relationships between their terminals. This may be in the form of a phasor diagram, or using an alpha-numeric code to show the type of internal connection wye or delta for each winding.
The EMF of a transformer at a given flux increases with frequency. However, properties such as core loss and conductor skin effect also increase with frequency. Consequently, the transformers used to step-down the high overhead line voltages were much larger and heavier for the same power rating than those required for the higher frequencies.
Operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetizing current. At a lower frequency, the magnetizing current will increase.
Operation of a large transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages, losses, and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. Transformers may require protective relays to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher than rated frequency.
One example is in traction transformers used for electric multiple unit and high-speed train service operating across regions with different electrical standards. At much higher frequencies the transformer core size required drops dramatically: a physically small transformer can handle power levels that would require a massive iron core at mains frequency.
The development of switching power semiconductor devices made switch-mode power supplies viable, to generate a high frequency, then change the voltage level with a small transformer. Large power transformers are vulnerable to insulation failure due to transient voltages with high-frequency components, such as caused in switching or by lightning. Transformer energy losses are dominated by winding and core losses. Transformers' efficiency tends to improve with increasing transformer capacity.
The efficiency of typical distribution transformers is between about 98 and 99 percent. As transformer losses vary with load, it is often useful to tabulate no-load loss, full-load loss, half-load loss, and so on. Hysteresis and eddy current losses are constant at all load levels and dominate at no load, while winding loss increases as load increases. The no-load loss can be significant, so that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on the electrical supply.
Designing energy efficient transformers for lower loss requires a larger core, good-quality silicon steel , or even amorphous steel for the core and thicker wire, increasing initial cost. The choice of construction represents a trade-off between initial cost and operating cost. Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'. When windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form.
At higher voltage and power ratings, shell form transformers tend to be more prevalent. Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies typically have cores made of high permeability silicon steel. Each lamination is insulated from its neighbors by a thin non-conducting layer of insulation.
The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux, and so reduce their magnitude. Thinner laminations reduce losses,  but are more laborious and expensive to construct.
One common design of laminated core is made from interleaved stacks of E-shaped steel sheets capped with I-shaped pieces, leading to its name of 'E-I transformer'.
The cut-core or C-core type is made by winding a steel strip around a rectangular form and then bonding the layers together. It is then cut in two, forming two C shapes, and the core assembled by binding the two C halves together with a steel strap.
A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. When power is then reapplied, the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remaining magnetism is reduced, usually after a few cycles of the applied AC waveform.
On transformers connected to long, overhead power transmission lines, induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core and operation of transformer protection devices. Distribution transformers can achieve low no-load losses by using cores made with low-loss high-permeability silicon steel or amorphous non-crystalline metal alloy.
The higher initial cost of the core material is offset over the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load. Powdered iron cores are used in circuits such as switch-mode power supplies that operate above mains frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz.
These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. For frequencies extending beyond the VHF band , cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials called ferrites are common. Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core, which, depending on operating frequency, is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound into a coil, powdered iron, or ferrite. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an E-I core.
The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. This minimizes the length of wire needed and provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated E-I types for a similar power level. Other advantages compared to E-I types, include smaller size about half , lower weight about half , less mechanical hum making them superior in audio amplifiers , lower exterior magnetic field about one tenth , low off-load losses making them more efficient in standby circuits , single-bolt mounting, and greater choice of shapes.
The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited power capacity see Classification parameters below. Because of the lack of a residual gap in the magnetic path, toroidal transformers also tend to exhibit higher inrush current, compared to laminated E-I types.
Ferrite toroidal cores are used at higher frequencies, typically between a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz, to reduce losses, physical size, and weight of inductive components. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher labor cost of winding.
This is because it is necessary to pass the entire length of a coil winding through the core aperture each time a single turn is added to the coil. As a consequence, toroidal transformers rated more than a few kVA are uncommon. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open, then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. A transformer can be produced by placing the windings near each other, an arrangement termed an "air-core" transformer.
An air-core transformer eliminates loss due to hysteresis in the core material. Air-core transformers are unsuitable for use in power distribution,  but are frequently employed in radio-frequency applications. The electrical conductor used for the windings depends upon the application, but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn.
For small transformers, in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small, the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire. Larger power transformers may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated paper and blocks of pressboard. High-frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz often have windings made of braided Litz wire to minimize the skin-effect and proximity effect losses.
Suhner electric tools are used with great success in trade and industry. The main applications are grinding, cutting and polishing. Suhner machines are manufactured to meet today's needs. They are very efficient and highly reliable. Angle Grinders The power tools of Suhner.
A transformer is a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to one or more circuits. A varying current in any one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux , which, in turn, induces a varying electromotive force across any other coils wound around the same core. Electrical energy can be transferred between the possibly many coils, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday's law of induction discovered in described the induced voltage effect in any coil due to changing magnetic flux encircled by the coil. Transformers are used for increasing alternating voltages at low current Step Up Transformer or decreasing the alternating voltages at high current Step Down Transformer in electric power applications, and for coupling the stages of signal processing circuits. Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in , transformers have become essential for the transmission , distribution , and utilization of alternating current electric power. Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimeter in volume, to units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect the power grid.
Electrical & Electronic Engineering: Business
The Newcastle research office has been based in Newcastle University since and has a long history of working on advanced motor design and control for Dyson products. The research focus of the office complements the Newcastle Electrical Power group's expertise in power system design and control for high power density electric drives with high efficiencies and low cost. We have very close links with Dyson RDD, 20 current and former employees of the motors research team have completed postgraduate and doctoral training in motors and power systems at the department. We maintain close links with the department to ensure the content of courses and teaching will continue to produce high-quality engineers with skills suited to Dyson and industry in general. His experience lies in managing the coupled mechanical stress, electromagnetic loss and thermal effects in high speed, power dense machines; although Dyson's machines are on a different scale to what he is used to the challenges are fundamentally the same and just as severe.
Create citation alert. Buy this article in print. Journal RSS feed. Sign up for new issue notifications. Superconducting technology applications in electric machines have long been pursued due to their significant advantages of higher efficiency and power density over conventional technology. However, in spite of many successful technology demonstrations, commercial adoption has been slow, presumably because the threshold for value versus cost and technology risk has not yet been crossed. One likely path for disruptive superconducting technology in commercial products could be in applications where its advantages become key enablers for systems which are not practical with conventional technology. To help systems engineers assess the viability of such future solutions, we present a technology roadmap for superconducting machines. Future projections, by definition, are based on the judgment of specialists, and can be subjective. Attempts have been made to obtain input from a broad set of organizations for an inclusive opinion.
Mine Electrical Systems
For the past 50 years, Hyosung Heavy Industries has been playing a leading role in the Korean power transmission and distribution industry by supplying transformers, circuit breakers, and electrical units. It was also able to emerge as a global leader in the area of heavy electric machines -- one of the core energy components -- based on decades of experience in the Korean market. Hyosung Heavy Industries is strengthening the competitiveness of not only the transmission and distribution business but also its power automation and smart grid businesses based on power IT such as power monitoring and control systems and prevention and diagnosis systems in order to cope with the changes in the urban environment where the latest smart technologies are being applied.
Grayford Industrial is an active distributor of electrical, communications, data networking and security products to a variety of industries. We have engineering professionals on hand to offer energy management solutions that reduce cost, boost efficiency and enhance productivity. We can help you build an energy management strategy and provide the products and services to turn a traditionally reactive expense into a proactive solution for enhancing business value. Our location knowledge is put to the test daily when specifying products for different locations around the globe, when power ratings must be taken into consideration. Our goal is simple. We listen to what you need, we connect you to the right solution and then we deliver on our word. A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset either manually or automatically to resume normal operation. Grayford Industrial works with a number of manufacturers and in particular enjoys a close relationship with Square D USA.
We know that electrical projects are used in many cases in our real life and they require more power when compared with electronics projects. Electrical project circuits use only passive components like capacitors, inductors, resistors, etc. As a result, many people like to get an idea about how electrical projects work and which projects may come under this category. For those people, here we are providing a list of top electrical projects ideas. These project ideas will be more helpful for engineering students also as many of them are showing lot of interest towards these electrical projects. All these projects ideas are collected from different resources and published here for visitors convenience. If any body interested, they may suggest some more project ideas through our contact us page so that we would include those project ideas also in this list. Nice projects.
More than million electric motors are used in infrastructure, large buildings and in industries globally. Over 30 million motors are sold each year for industrial purposes alone. At a time when talk has shifted to emission reduction, electric motor manufacturers have been innovating and disrupting the global marketplace. With so much demand for electric motors, many products are thriving. For example, growth is accelerating in the synchronous electric motors market, which can expect an increase of several billion dollars by
Power electronics is the engineering study of converting electrical power from one form to another. A lot of energy is wasted during this power conversion process due to low power conversion efficiency. It is estimated that the power wasted in desktop PCs sold in one year is equivalent to seventeen MW power plants!
High power density superconducting rotating machines—development status and technology roadmap
Power Electronics and Power Systems
Improvements to industrial electric motor systems can be realized through the application of key enabling technologies, such as wide bandgap devices, advanced magnetic materials, improved insulation materials, aggressive cooling techniques, high speed bearing designs, and improved conductors or superconducting materials. The funding opportunities and selected projects are listed below. The projects will develop medium voltage integrated drive systems that leverage the benefits of wide bandgap devices with energy efficient, high speed, direct drive, megawatt class electric motors for efficiency and power density improvement in the chemical and petroleum refining industries, natural gas infrastructure, and general industry compressor applications like HVAC systems, refrigeration, and wastewater pumps.
Для меня это место выглядит таким же мертвым, как и первая планета из тех, что мы посетили. - Я выйду наружу, к роботу.