NCBI Bookshelf. Some Industrial Chemicals. Styrene is available as a commercial product with the following specifications: purity, Dow Chemical Co. Styrene in workplace air can be determined by packed capillary column gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector.
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- Guide to Manufacturing Processes for Plastics
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Teflon is the registered trade name of the highly useful plastic material polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE. PTFE is one of a class of plastics known as fluoropolymers. A polymer is a compound formed by a chemical reaction which combines particles into groups of repeating large molecules. Many common synthetic fibers are polymers, such as polyester and nylon. PTFE is the polymerized form of tetrafluoroethylene. PTFE has many unique properties, which make it valuable in scores of applications.
It has a very high melting point, and is also stable at very low temperatures. It can be dissolved by nothing but hot fluorine gas or certain molten metals, so it is extremely resistant to corrosion. It is also very slick and slippery. This makes it an excellent material for coating machine parts which are subjected to heat, wear, and friction, for laboratory equipment which must resist corrosive chemicals, and as a coating for cookware and utensils.
PTFE is used to impart stain-resistance to fabrics, carpets, and wall coverings, and as weatherproofing on outdoor signs.
PTIZE has low electrical conductivity, so it makes a good electrical insulator. It is used to insulate much data communication cable, and it is essential to the manufacture of semi-conductors. PTFE is also found in a variety of medical applications, such as in vascular grafts.
A fiberglass fabric with PTFE coating serves to protect the roofs of airports and stadiums. PTFE can even be incorporated into fiber for weaving socks. The low friction of the PTFE makes the socks exceptionally smooth, protecting feet from blisters. PTFE was discovered accidentally in by a young scientist looking for something else. Roy Plunkett was a chemist for E.
He had earned a PhD from Ohio State University in , and in when he stumbled upon Teflon, he was still only 27 years old. Plunkett's area was refrigerants. Many chemicals that were used as refrigerants before the s were dangerously explosive. Du Pont and General Motors had developed a new type of non-flammable refrigerant, a form of Freon called refrigerant Refrigerant was tied up in an exclusive arrangement with General Motor's Frigidaire division, and at the time could not be marketed to other manufacturers.
Plunkett endeavored to come up with a different form of refrigerant that would get around Frigidaire's patent control. The technical name for refrigerant was tetrafluorodichloroethane. Plunkett hoped to make a similar refrigerant by reacting hydrochloric acid with a compound called tetrafluoroethylene, or TFE. TFE itself was a little known substance, and Plunkett decided his first task was to make a large amount of this gas.
The chemist thought he might as well make a hundred pounds of the gas, to be sure to have enough for all his chemical tests, and for toxicological tests as well. He stored the gas in metal cans with a valve release, much like the cans used commercially today for pressurized sprays like hair spray. Plunkett kept the cans on dry ice, to cool and liquefy the TFE gas. His refrigerant experiment required Plunkett and his assistant to release the TFE gas from the cans into a heated chamber.
On the morning of April 6, , Plunkett found he could not get the gas out of the can. To Plunkett and his assistant's mystification, the gas had transformed overnight into a white, flaky powder. The TFE had polymerized. Polymerization is a chemical process in which molecules combine into long strings. One of the best known polymers is nylon, which was also discovered by researchers at Du Pont. Polymer science was still in its infancy in the s.
Plunkett believed that TFE could not polymerize, and yet it had somehow done so. He sent the strange white flakes to Du Pont's Central Research Department, where teams of chemists analyzed the stuff. The polymerized TFE was curiously inert. It did not react with any other chemicals, it resisted electric currents, and it was extremely smooth and slick. Plunkett was able to figure out how the TFE gas had accidentally polymerized, and he took out a patent for the polymerized substance, polytetrafluoroethylene, or PTFE.
But it came into use in World War II, during the development of the atomic bomb. Making the bomb required scientists to handle large amounts of the caustic and toxic substance uranium hexafluoride. Du Pont provided PTFE-coated gaskets and liners that resisted the extreme corrosive action of uranium hexafluoride. Du Pont registered the trademark name Teflon for its patented substance in , and continued to work after the war on cheaper and more effective manufacturing techniques.
The company marketed Teflon after the war's end as a coating for machined metal parts. In the s, Du Pont began marketing cookware coated with Teflon. The slick Teflon coating resisted the stickiness of even scorched food, so cleaning the pans was easy. The company marketed Teflon for a variety of other uses as well.
Other related fluoropolymers were developed and marketed in ensuing decades, some of which were easier to process than PTFE. Du Pont registered another variant of Teflon in , Teflon AF, which is soluble in special solvents. A non-stick pan is composed of varying non-stick layers. TFE is synthesized from fluorspar, hydrofluoric acid, and chloroform. These ingredients are combined under high heat, an action known as pyrolosis. TFE is a colorless, odorless, nontoxic gas which is, however, extremely flammable.
It is stored as a liquid, at low temperature and pressure. The polymerization process uses a very small amount of other chemicals as initiators. Various initiators can be used, including ammonium persulfate or disuccinic acid peroxide. The other essential ingredient of the polymerization process is water. PTFE can be produced in a number of ways, depending on the particular traits desired for the end product. Many specifics of the process are proprietary secrets of the manufacturers.
There are two main methods of producing PTFE. One is suspension polymerization. The grains can be further processed into pellets which can be molded. In the dispersion method, the resulting PTFE is a milky paste which can be processed into a fine powder. Both the paste and powder are used in coating applications. Teflon con be used on a wide variety of cookware. Quality control measures take place both at the primary PTFE manufacturing facility and at plants where further processing steps, such as coatings, are done.
In the primary manufacturing facility, standard industrial procedures are followed to determine purity of ingredients, accuracy of temperatures, etc. End products are tested for conformance to standards. For dispersion PTFE, this means the viscosity and specific gravity of the dispersion is tested. Other tests may be performed as well. Because Teflon is a trademarked product, manufacturers who wish to use the brand name for parts or products made with Teflon PTFE must follow quality control guidelines laid down by Du Pont.
In the case of nonstick cookware manufacturers, for example, the cookware makers adhere to Du Pont's Quality Certification Program, which requires that they monitor the thickness of the PTFE coating and the baking temperature, and carry out adhesion tests several times during each shift. Though PTFE itself is non-toxic, its manufacture produces toxic byproducts.
These include hydrofluoric acid and carbon dioxide. Work areas must be adequately ventilated to prevent exposure to gases while PTFE is being heated, or when it cools after sintering.
Doctors have documented a particular illness called polymer fume fever suffered by workers who have inhaled the gaseous byproducts of PTFE manufacturing. Some waste created during the manufacturing process can be reused. Because PTFE was at first very expensive to produce, manufacturers had high incentive to find ways to use scrap material. Waste or debris generated in the manufacturing process can be cleaned and made into fine powder.
This powder can be used for molding, or as an additive to certain lubricants, oils, and inks. Used PTFE parts should be buried in landfills, not incinerated, because burning at high temperatures will release hydrogen chloride and other toxic substances.
One study released in claimed that PTFE also degrades in the environment into one substance that is toxic to plants. This is trifluoroacetate, or TFA. While current levels of TFA in the environment are low, the substance persists for a long time.
So TFA pollution is possibly a concern for the future. Ebnesajjad, Sina. Friedel, Robert, and Alan Pilon. Gorman, J. Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 7 Teflon Teflon. Periodicals Friedel, Robert, and Alan Pilon. Angela Woodward. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur.
Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. Springer Shop Amazon. Polymer Microscopy. Linda C. Modern materials include a vast array of polymers and plastics which are found in applications such as housing, appliances, clothing and household textiles and automotive and aerospace industries.
Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. Epoxy is a term used to denote both the basic components and the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. Epoxy resin are a class of thermoset materials used extensively in structural and specialty composite applications because they offer a unique combination of properties that are unattainable with other thermoset resins.
British Plastics Federation
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Gelcoat Suppliers. Click here for a video guide on brush-applying gelcoat. Fiberglass resin is a thick liquid that requires a catalyst in order to become a solid. Supplier of polycarbonate roof in Manila Philippines. Computer analyzation of hull designs, lines and dimensions available with special interest in rowing and sailing craft. That creates the potential for the fibers to protrude through the laminate surface. Looking for gel coat?
An Overview of Polyurethane Fabric
Composites offer numerous advantages over conventional building materials. One advantage that might not be obvious is the ease and durability of repairs. Fear not, composite parts are often easier to repair than parts made from traditional materials.
Polyester resins are most commonly used as composite materials. Innovation relating to these materials is driving the plastics industry into exciting new applications, most notably perhaps in the aerospace and construction markets. UP Resins are made up of at least two separate components; reinforced fibre and embedding matrix. Other additives may be used to improve properties or characteristics. Materials basically bridge the gap between conventional, commodity plastics and specialist engineering plastics. Production takes place by introducing reinforcement while the resin is in an uncured, liquid state. Such plastics are widely used in a host of applications where advantage may be taken of their good range of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and low weight. The actual preparation of the first polyester resin is accredited to both Berzelius in and Gay-Lussac and Pelouze in Ellis discovered that unsaturated polyester resins made by reacting glycols with maleric anhydride could be cured to insoluble solids simply by adding a peroxide catalyst.
Polyurethane Fabric. Polyurethane PU is a composite material made of: 1 one or more layers of polymer resins joined by urethane links; and 2 a woven or non-woven textile backing such as polyester, cotton, nylon, or ground leather. The PU coating is applied to a single side of the base fabric and then treated to look more like animal hide. This makes the fabric water resistant, light weight and flexible. This fabric provides the most realistic imitation of leather when it comes to its soft supple hand. Because no plasticizers are used in PU upholstery there is no cracking or peeling, and it remains soft and supple for the duration of time it remains on the furniture. PU fabrics are also easier to decorate. PU is considered greener than vinyl because it does not create dioxins. PU costs less than real leather, but it can be more expensive to produce than vinyl.
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Polyester fleece is a soft, fuzzy fabric used for sweaters, sweat shirts, jackets, mittens, hats, blankets, and in any other applications where a warm, wool-like material is needed. It is a two-sided pile material, meaning that both the front and back surface of the fabric sprouts a layer of cut fibers, similar to corduroy or velvet. Polyester fleece is an extremely durable fabric that not only holds in warmth but resists moisture and dries quickly. Unlike many other synthetic woolly textiles, polyester fleece does not pill-bunch up into little balls-after extended use. It became popular for out-door gear in the early s, because back-packers and hikers found it lighter weight and warmer than wool. It is increasingly popular as a fashion fabric, and has found a host of more specialized uses. Polyester fleece has been used to make underwear for astronauts, in deep-sea diving suits, and as ear-warmers for winter-born calves. Synthetic fibers date back to the nineteenth century, when scientists in England and Germany developed methods of extruding the liquid state of certain chemicals through fine holes, to get thread-like strings. Fiber-glass was made this way, and various other chemical fibers that were ultimately not useful as textiles.
Top 5 Vendors in the Global Unsaturated Polyester Resin Market From 2017-2021: Technavio
To view our product range, please click here. Unsaturated polyester resins are the most commonly used thermoset resins in the world. When it comes to weight for cost comparisons, unsaturated polyester resins are much favoured over their metallic counterparts. With the current fuel and processing costs, the increasing prices of steel and aluminium are pushing more fabricators to use unsaturated polyester resin composites instead.
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Guide to Manufacturing Processes for Plastics
Teflon is the registered trade name of the highly useful plastic material polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE. PTFE is one of a class of plastics known as fluoropolymers. A polymer is a compound formed by a chemical reaction which combines particles into groups of repeating large molecules. Many common synthetic fibers are polymers, such as polyester and nylon.
Technavio has published a new report on the global unsaturated polyester resins UPR market from Graphic: Business Wire. This research report also lists seven other prominent vendors that are expected to impact the market during the forecast period. The building and construction industry form the biggest end-user segment, where it is used in the manufacture of fiber-reinforced plastic, artificial stones, marbles, granites, and putties.